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ISSN: 2155-9546
Journal of Aquaculture Research & Development

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Variation in the Chemical Composition of Saccharina Japonica with Harvest Area and Culture Period

Jae-Ho Hwang1, Nam-Gil Kim2, Hee-Chul Woo3, Sung-Ju Rha1, Seon-Jae Kim4 and Tai-Sun Shin5*

1College of Fisheries and Ocean Science, Chonnam National University, Yosu 550-749, Korea

2Department Marine Biology and Aquaculture, Gyeongsang National University, 445 Inpyeong-dong, Tongyeong-si, Gyeongsangnam, 650-160, Korea

3Department of Chemical Engineering, Pukyong National University, 365 Sinseon-ro, Yongdang-dong, Nam-gu, Busan, 608-739, Korea

4Department of Marine Bio Food, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 550-749, Korea

5Division of Food Nutrition Science, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, Korea

*Corresponding Author:
Tai-Sun Shin
Division of Food Nutrition Science
Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, Korea
Tel: +82-61-659-7415
Fax: +82-61-659-7415
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: September 08, 2014; Accepted Date: October 31, 2014; Published Date: November 04, 2014

Citation: Hwang JH, Kim NG, Woo HC, Rha SJ, Kim SJ, et al. (2014) Variation in the Chemical Composition of Saccharina Japonica with Harvest Area and Culture Period. J Aquac Res Development 5:286. doi: 10.4172/2155-9546.1000286

Copyright: © 2014 Hwang JH, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Abstract

Saccharina japonica is commercially important marine brown algae which grow as a single blade (reaching 10 meters in length) with a short stipe. In this study, the edible brown weed Sacchaina japonica was assessed for nutritional composition. Samples were collected monthly from seaweed farms at Kijang and Wando on the south coast of the Republic of Korea, during the 2011 culture season. S. japonica in Kijang and Wando showed the highest crude protein content in February and the highest carbohydrate content in July. Monthly changes in sugar, fatty acid, mineral, and total amino acid contents observed from February to July 2011. Fucose was the most abundant and galactose the second most abundant in the monosaccharide composition profiles, while mannose, glucose, xylose, ribose, and rhamnose were present in low quantities and lactose, mannitol, and arabinose were not detected. Significant increases of the major fatty acids in Kijang (C18:2 n-6 and C20:4 n-6) and Wando (C18:3 n-6) were observed as the culture period progressed. The highest mineral content of both Kijang and Wando samples is potassium and followed by sodium, calcium, magnesium, and so on. In the total amino acid contents, Kijang samples increased from February to April but decreased from May to July, while Wando samples increased on March but decreased from April to July.

Keywords

Saccharina japonica; Brown algae; Harvest area; Culture period; Chemical composition

Introduction

China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea are the largest consumers of edible seaweeds [1]. Seaweeds include high alginic acid, fucoidan, and laminara contents, so it is effective for hematocele and lipid metabolism improvement such as lowering blood pressure and cholesterol in the blood, and anti-cancer [2]. According to a survey conducted on worldwide production of aquatic plants, there are approximately 16 million tons of annual aquatic plants, of which 14.9 million tons produced by aquaculture [3]. Algal production in Korea is mainly limited to Porphyra tenera, Saccharina japonica, and Undaria pinnatifida, which comprise 94% of the total harvested seaweed [4]. S. japonica is very popular as a healthy food because of low calorie and abundant vitamin, mineral, dietary fiber, calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphoric acid, and microelements and high iodine content as compared with other seaweeds [5].

In recent years, many studies on macro-algae have carried out and their proximate composition differs according to species, geographic origin, and seasonal conditions [6,7]. Growth change of laminaria closely related with culture period, most researchers studied to determine correlation between growth and nitrogen concentration [8]. Moreover, growth and chemical composition are various in different environments such as current, nutrients supply, fresh water inflow, and water temperature. Perennial Saccharina japonica generates alternately, and grows at subantarctic zone as well as temperate climate regions [9]. Cosson [10] reported that survival rate of Laminaria digitata spores is substantially lowered at over radiation intensity (about 170 μE·m-2·s-1). Kang and Koh [11] found that optimal growth temperature and light intensity of Laminaria japonica sporophyte were at 10°C and 70 μE·m-2·s-1.

To our knowledge, detailed studies have not conducted to evaluate the effects of the culture period and harvest area on the chemical composition of S. japonica. This fundamental study performed to assess changes of proximate composition, sugar, fatty acid, mineral, and amino acid of S. japonica obtained from two sampling regions in Korea, Kijang and Wando, which had definitely different environment, and during the culture period from February to July.

Materials and Methods

Sampling

In order to observe variations in chemical composition during the harvest time, S. japonica was collected from an environmentally quite different seaweed farm at Kijang and Wando located on the southern coast of the Republic of Korea once a month from February to July 2011 (Figure 1). Both sporophytes of S. japonica transferred to the ocean at 0.5 m water depth in the same time (December 2010), and 5-20 individuals of whole S. japonica (blade, stem, and root) collected during the 2011 culture season. Freshly collected plants wrapped in paper towels with seawater, sealed in plastic bags, kept in an icebox, and transport to the laboratory where they washed with distilled water twice and freeze-dried. Each powered S. japonica (about 500 g) used for triplicate analysis.

aquaculture-research-development-saccharide

Figure 1: A map showing the site where Saccharide japonica were harvested during the 2011 culture period.

General component analysis

Moisture, crude protein, crude lipid, and ash content were determined using the standard methods described by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists [12]. Protein content analyzed using the semi-Kjeldahl method. Lipids extracted with anhydrous diethyl ether using a Soxhlet apparatus. Moisture quantified by oven drying the samples at 105°C for 12 h. Ash was determined after incineration in a furnace at 550°C. Total carbohydrate content calculated by subtracting the sum of moisture, crude protein, crude lipid, and ash mass from that of the total sample [13].

Component sugar analysis

In order to extract component sugar, a test sample (100 mg) mixed in the 15 mL test tube with 5 mL of 2M HCl. The oxygen in the test tube replaced by nitrogen gas, sealed, and placed in a heating mantle at 100°C for 5 h [14]. Hydrolyzed sample cooled, neutralized by adding 5 mL of 2M NaOH, and centrifuged at 650 g for 30 min. 3 mL supernatant filtered through a Millipore membrane (0.45 μm pore size), and analyzed by operating conditions (Table 1) using HPLC (Prominence HPLC, Shimadzu Co, Ltd. Kyoto, Japan).

Condition
Column Shim-pack ISA-07 (4.0 mm × 250 mm)
Mobile phase A: potassium borate (pH 8.0)
B: potassium borate (pH 9.0)
Flow rate 0.6 mL/min, gradient
Reagent 1% arginine in 3% boric acid (0.5 mL)
Reaction temperature 150 °C
Detector Fluorescence detector (Ex=320, Em=430)
Oven temperature 65 °C

Table 1: HPLC operating conditions for component sugars.

Fatty acid composition analysis

Bligh and Dyer extraction was performed using the following method [15]: Briefly, lipids were extracted from 5-g samples by homogenization with 100 mL of chloroform and 200 mL methanol. The samples were then filtered and evaporated to remove solvent. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were prepared using boron trifluoride (BF3) according to a method described by the AOAC [12]. Quantitative analysis of FAME was carried out on a GC-2010 gas chromatograph(Shimadzu Co., Japan) equipped with a split/splitless capillary inlet system and a flame ionization detector (FID) using SPCondition 2560 capillary columns (0.20-μm stationary phase thickness, 100 mm (length)×0.25 mm (i.d.); Supelco, Inc., USA). The sample (0.5 μl) was injected in the split mode using an automatic injection system (AOC- 20i, Shimadzu Co., Japan). The oven temperature was programmed to increase from 160 to 220°C at 1°C min−1 with an initial hold of 5 min and final hold of 40 min. The other operation parameters were as follows: injector temperature, 250°C; detector temperature, 250°C; helium carrier gas flow, 20 cm s−1; split ratio, 1:50. The peak areas for the calibration curves and for calculation of fatty acid composition of oil samples were measured using a GC Solution system (Shimadzu Co., Japan).

Mineral contents

For the determination of mineral elements (calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, and zinc), samples were digested by dry ashing and dissolved in 1 M HCl [12]. The final diluted solution for calcium contained 1% lanthanum to overcome interferences. The concentration of the elements in S. japonica were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Perkin- Elmer, model 3110). Triplicate determinations for each element were carried out. The concentration of the elements were determined from calibration curves of the standard elements.

Amino-acid analysis

Samples (0.5 g) were acid-hydrolyzed with 3 mL of 6 N HCl in vacuum-sealed hydrolysis vials at 121°C for 24 h. Tubes were cooled after hydrolysis, opened, and placed in a rotary evaporator at 50°C to remove HCl from the sample. The residue was then adjusted to pH 2.2 with 0.2 M sodium citrate loading buffer (pH 2.2), diluted to a final volume of 10 mL with water, filtered through a Millipore membrane (0.2 μm pore size), and analyzed for amino acids using an amino-acid analyzer (Pharmacia Biochrom 20, Biochrom Ltd., UK).

Statistical analysis

All mean values were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, SPSS 1999). Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD; n=3 replicates). Group means were considered to be significantly different at p<0.05.

Results

Changes in proximate composition with harvest area and culture period

The proximate compositions of Kijang and Wando samples are shown in Tables 2 and 3. There was a high variation in moisture, crude protein, ash and crude lipid content with culture period and harvest area among the Kijang and Wando samples collected at different months from February to July. S. japonica in Kijang and Wando showed the highest crude protein content in February and the highest carbohydrate content in July. In the crude lipid content, February samples in Kijang and Wando generally tended to decrease until July. There was a high variation in ash content with culture period and harvest area, ranging from 14.29 ± 1.47% to 19.39 ± 0.75% (Tables 2 and 3).

Component Culture period
 Feb  Mar Apr  May  Jun  Jul
Moisture 10.55 ± 0.51a 10.67 ± 0.45a 10.25 ± 0.49a 10.31 ± 0.98a 10.45 ± 1.41a 10.41 ± 0.22a
Crude protein 9.39 ± 0.45a 8.54 ± 0.36b 7.61 ± 0.34c 7.27 ± 0.70cd 6.62 ± 0.51d 5.72 ± 0.51e
Crude lipid 1.69 ± 0.08a 1.43 ± 0.06b 1.35 ± 0.06bc 1.09 ± 0.12d 1.23 ± 0.14cd 1.17 ± 0.02d
Ash 15.11 ± 0.73b 17.88 ± 0.72ab 18.39 ± 0.75a 17.86 ± 2.58ab 17.35 ± 2.04ab 16.51 ± 0.34ab
Carbohydrateb 63.26 ± 3.02a 61.48 ± 2.59a 62.40 ± 2.61a 63.47 ± 6.78a 64.35 ± 5.62a 66.19 ± 1.23a

Table 2: Seasonal variation of proximate composition (%) in the dried sea tangle (S. japonica) cultured at Kijang areaa

Component Culture period
 Feb  Mar Apr  May  Jun  Jul
Moisture 10.38 ± 0.47a 10.51 ± 0.45a 10.45 ± 0.50a 10.12 ± 0.96a 10.34 ± 1.18a 10.46 ± 0.19a
Crude protein 8.20 ± 0.36a 8.20 ± 0.40a 7.51 ± 0.31a 6.54 ± 0.71b 5.58 ± 0.80c 5.15 ± 0.14c
Crude lipid 2.00 ± 0.09b 2.35 ± 0.09a 1.56 ± 0.07c 1.37 ± 0.21cd 1.26 ± 0.10d 1.23 ± 0.02d
Ash 16.68 ± 0.77ab 17.35 ± 0.73a 17.86 ± 0.80a 15.82 ± 2.39ab 14.29 ± 1.47b 14.69 ± 0.29b
Carbohydrateb 62.74 ± 2.89a 61.59 ± 2.61a 62.62 ± 2.91a 66.15 ± 7.29a 68.53 ± 7.22a 68.47 ± 0.49a

Table 3: Seasonal variation of proximate composition (%) in the dried sea tangle (S. japonica) cultured at Wando areaa

Changes in component sugar and fatty acid composition with harvest area and culture period

Component sugar compositions of Kijang and Wando samples are shown in Tables 4 and 5. Fucose was the most abundant and galactose the second most abundant in the monosaccharide composition profiles. Mannose, glucose, xylose, ribose, and rhamnose were present at low quantities, and lactose, mannitol, and arabinose were not detected.

Sugar Culture period
  Feb
Mar
Apr May  Jun   Jul 
Rhamnose 0.11 ± 0.00a 0.08 ± 0.00b 0.08 ± 0.00b 0.04 ± 0.00c 0.04 ± 0.00c 0.03 ± 0.01d
Ribose 0.19 ± 0.00a 0.10 ± 0.00b 0.10 ± 0.00b 0.01 ± 0.00d 0.02 ± 0.00c 0.01 ± 0.01d
Mannose 0.66 ± 0.01b 0.55 ± 0.01d 0.65 ± 0.01b 0.72 ± 0.02a 0.60 ± 0.01c 0.56 ± 0.02d
Fucose 3.32 ± 0.08c 4.17 ± 0.13b 4.84 ± 0.12a 2.68 ± 0.06d 2.27 ± 0.06f 2.52 ± 0.16e
Galactose 2.31 ± 0.06a 1.92 ± 0.04b 1.97 ± 0.06b 0.80 ± 0.02d 0.88 ± 0.02c 0.71 ± 0.11e
Xylose 0.35 ± 0.01a 0.24 ± 0.01b 0.16 ± 0.00c 0.06 ± 0.00d 0.05 ± 0.00e 0.05 ± 0.00e
Glucose 0.55 ± 0.01d 0.64 ± 0.02c 0.68 ± 0.02b 0.73 ± 0.01a 0.72 ± 0.02a 0.53 ± 0.12d
Total 7.48 ± 0.17b 7.70 ± 0.17b 8.47 ± 0.21a 5.03 ± 0.13c 4.56 ± 0.11d 4.40 ± 0.14d

Table 4: Seasonal variation of component sugar in the dried sea tangle (S. japonica) cultured at Kijang areaa

Sugar Culture period
  Feb Mar Apr
May   Jun   Jul
Rhamnose 0.12 ± 0.00b 0.13 ± 0.00a 0.07 ± 0.00c 0.03 ± 0.00d 0.02 ± 0.00e 0.02 ± 0.00e
Ribose 0.19 ± 0.01a 0.10 ± 0.00b 0.09 ± 0.00c 0.01 ± 0.00e 0.02 ± 0.00d 0.01 ± 0.01e
Mannose 0.75 ± 0.02a 0.67 ± 0.02c 0.74 ± 0.02a 0.70 ± 0.02b 0.59 ± 0.01d 0.47 ± 0.08e
Fucose 3.49 ± 0.09a 2.98 ± 0.06b 2.92 ± 0.08bc 3.01 ± 0.07b 2.83 ± 0.05c 1.85 ± 0.54d
Galactose 2.21 ± 0.05a 1.65 ± 0.04c 1.81 ± 0.04b 0.80 ± 0.02d 0.80 ± 0.01d 0.63 ± 0.09e
Xylose 0.43 ± 0.01a 0.28 ± 0.01c 0.30 ± 0.01b 0.06 ± 0.00d 0.07 ± 0.00d 0.05 ± 0.01e
Glucose 0.67 ± 0.02b 0.67 ± 0.02b 0.73 ± 0.02a 0.72 ± 0.01a 0.42 ± 0.01c 0.42 ± 0.01c
Total 7.87 ± 0.21a 6.48 ± 0.14b 6.65 ± 0.21b 5.34 ± 0.16c 4.76 ± 0.11d 3.45 ± 0.73e

Table 5: Seasonal variation of component sugar in the dried sea tangle (S. japonica) cultured at Wando areaa.

The fatty acid compositions of Kijang and Wando samples are shown in Tables 6 and 7. Lignoceric acid (24:0) was the most abundant fatty acid, followed by arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6), oleic acid (18:1 n-9), and palmitic acid (16:0). Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) constituted about 54.9%, 52.3% of total fatty acids, and saturated fatty acids (SFA) represented 45.1%, 47.7% of the total fatty acids in the Kijang and Wando samples, respectively. The Kijang-Jul samples showed the highest PUFA composition (37.5%) among the samples, while Wando-Mar showed the lowest PUFA composition (30.1%), indicating that there was a high variation in fatty acid contents with the harvest area and culture period.

Fatty acid
(%)
Culture period
  Feb Mar  Apr May Jun Jul
12:0 0.18 ± 0.01c 0.27 ± 0.01a 0.21 ± 0.00b 0.03 ± 0.00f 0.05 ± 0.00e 0.07 ± 0.00d
14:0 9.50 ± 0.21a 9.66 ± 0.19a 7.11 ± 0.15c 4.73 ± 0.15e 7.68 ± 0.15b 6.02 ± 0.12d
16:0 13.53 ± 0.31d 16.25 ± 0.35b 17.22 ± 0.22a 17.34 ± 0.40a 14.51 ± 0.33c 11.07 ± 0.27e
16:1 n-7 3.08 ± 0.08c 3.78 ± 0.12a 3.44 ± 0.08b 3.06 ± 0.07c 3.49 ± 0.09b 3.20 ± 0.09c
18:0 0.86 ± 0.02c 1.00 ± 0.02b 1.16 ± 0.03a 0.69 ± 0.02d 0.87 ± 0.02c 0.89 ± 0.02c
18:1 n-9 19.20 ± 0.40a 16.83 ± 0.42c 15.67 ± 0.42d 13.30 ± 0.40e 16.27 ± 0.39cd 17.75 ± 0.42b
18:2 n-6 5.58 ± 0.15b 6.79 ± 0.19a 6.78 ± 0.15a 6.93 ± 0.14a 6.95 ± 0.16a 7.03 ± 0.16a
18:3 n-6 1.78 ± 0.04e 2.17 ± 0.05d 2.90 ± 0.07c 2.94 ± 0.07c 3.97 ± 0.09a 3.76 ± 0.09b
18:3 n-3 7.38 ± 0.15a 6.54 ± 0.16c 6.79 ± 0.21b 3.84 ± 0.09d 2.96 ± 0.07e 2.97 ± 0.06e
20:0 0.40 ± 0.01c 0.50 ± 0.01b 0.50 ± 0.01b 0.26 ± 0.01d 0.51 ± 0.01ab 0.53 ± 0.01a
20:2 n-6 1.30 ± 0.03c 1.76 ± 0.04a 1.59 ± 0.05b 1.66 ± 0.04b 1.80 ± 0.04a 1.78 ± 0.04a
20:3 n-6 1.42 ± 0.03e 1.95 ± 0.04a 1.84 ± 0.05b 1.67 ± 0.04c 1.53 ± 0.03d 1.62 ± 0.05c
20:4 n-6 13.35 ± 0.30d 14.92 ± 0.40c 15.37 ± 0.32c 19.19 ± 0.45b 19.40 ± 0.21b 20.34 ± 0.45a
C24:0 22.44 ± 0.44b 17.58 ± 0.40d 19.42 ± 0.54c 24.36 ± 0.64a 20.01 ± 0.21c 22.97 ± 0.54b
Saturates 46.91 ± 1.07ab 45.26 ± 1.29bc 45.62 ± 1.11abc 47.42 ± 0.62a 43.64 ± 0.93c 41.55 ± 1.26d
Monoenes 22.27 ± 0.59a 20.62 ± 0.46bc 19.11 ± 0.61d 16.35 ± 0.49e 19.77 ± 0.45cd 20.95 ± 0.48b
Polyenes 30.81 ± 0.67d 34.13 ± 0.80c 35.27 ± 0.76bc 36.23 ± 0.81ab 36.60 ± 1.02ab 37.50 ± 0.45a
P/S 0.66 ± 0.02d 0.75 ± 0.02c 0.77 ± 0.02c 0.76 ± 0.02c 0.84 ± 0.02b 0.90 ± 0.02a

Table 6: Seasonal variation of fatty acid composition (percentage of weight) in the dried sea tangle (S. japonica) cultured at Kijang areaa.

Fatty acid
(%)
Culture period
 Feb Mar  Apr
 May  Jun Jul
12:0 0.28 ± 0.01b 0.58 ± 0.01a 0.09 ± 0.00d 0.04 ± 0.00e 0.16 ± 0.00c 0.08 ± 0.00d
14:0 10.47 ± 0.25b 10.92 ± 0.13a 8.70 ± 0.17c 6.72 ± 0.18e 7.09 ± 0.15d 5.74 ± 0.18f
16:0 16.08 ± 0.40c 16.94 ± 0.33b 17.13 ± 0.45b 18.07 ± 0.37a 11.25 ± 0.14d 10.58 ± 0.24e
16:1 n-7 2.92 ± 0.07d 3.10 ± 0.08c 3.45 ± 0.07b 3.15 ± 0.05c 3.79 ± 0.09a 3.20 ± 0.07c
18:0 1.25 ± 0.02a 1.14 ± 0.02b 0.82 ± 0.01c 0.81 ± 0.02c 0.82 ± 0.02c 0.81 ± 0.02c
18:1 n-9 17.26 ± 0.19a 17.07 ± 0.34a 14.95 ± 0.30c 15.41 ± 0.43bc 15.71 ± 0.42b 15.95 ± 0.48b
18:2 n-6 5.24 ± 0.05d 5.46 ± 0.17d 6.03 ± 0.17c 6.38 ± 0.13b 6.86 ± 0.15a 6.51 ± 0.13b
18:3 n-6 1.75 ± 0.04f 2.22 ± 0.05e 2.34 ± 0.06d 2.65 ± 0.07c 3.05 ± 0.08b 3.67 ± 0.09a
18:3 n-3 6.85 ± 0.16a 5.70 ± 0.13c 6.26 ± 0.14b 4.70 ± 0.13d 4.15 ± 0.13e 4.00 ± 0.09e
20:0 0.40 ± 0.01d 0.47 ± 0.01b 0.43 ± 0.01c 0.35 ± 0.00e 0.42 ± 0.01c 0.49 ± 0.01a
20:2 n-6 1.49 ± 0.04b 1.71 ± 0.03a 1.40 ± 0.04c 1.68 ± 0.05a 1.26 ± 0.04d 1.52 ± 0.04b
20:3 n-6 1.58 ± 0.03b 1.77 ± 0.04a 1.63 ± 0.04b 1.51 ± 0.03c 1.59 ± 0.04b 1.49 ± 0.03c
20:4 n-6 13.55 ± 0.32e 13.19 ± 0.41e 16.82 ± 0.39c 15.60 ± 0.37d 17.55 ± 0.36b 18.96 ± 0.45a
C24:0 20.89 ± 0.60c 19.73 ± 0.45d 19.95 ± 0.50cd 22.93 ± 0.24b 26.30 ± 0.74a 27.00 ± 0.71a
Saturates 49.37 ± 1.56a 49.78 ± 0.98a 47.12 ± 1.16b 48.93 ± 1.04a 46.04 ± 1.12bc 44.71 ± 0.58c
Monoenes 20.17 ± 0.46a 20.17 ± 0.46a 18.40 ± 0.32c 18.56 ± 0.43c 19.50 ± 0.62ab 19.15 ± 0.57bc
Polyenes 30.46 ± 0.69d 30.05 ± 0.80d 34.48 ± 0.62b 32.51 ± 0.90c 34.46 ± 0.74b 36.14 ± 0.81a
P/S 0.62 ± 0.01d 0.60 ± 0.02d 0.73 ± 0.02b 0.66 ± 0.01c 0.75 ± 0.02b 0.81 ± 0.02a

Table 7: Seasonal variation of fatty acid composition (percentage of weight) in the dried sea tangle (S. japonica) cultured at Wando areaa.

Changes in mineral content and total amino acid composition with harvest area and culture period

The mineral contents of Kijang and Wando samples are shown in Tables 8 and 9. The results show that S. japonica is rich in K and Na with moderate amounts of Ca and Mg whereas Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn are present in small quantities. The total amino acid (TAA) compositions of Kijang and Wando samples are shown in Tables 10 and 11. Glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, and leucine were the most common amino acids in all samples, while the percentage of cysteine was the lowest in the TAA profile. TAA of Kijang samples decreased during the harvest time from April to July while TAA of Wando samples decreased from March to July.

Mineral Culture period
 Feb Mar  Apr
 May Jun Jul 
Ca 567.11 ± 16.71e 972.86 ± 23.27a 858.81 ± 16.54d 745.45 ± 21.30d 783.84 ± 17.89c 741.41 ± 18.08d
Cu 0.29 ± 0.01e 0.46 ± 0.01d 0.34 ± 0.01c 0.47 ± 0.01d 0.67 ± 0.01a 0.31 ± 0.01d
Fe 8.15 ± 0.18a 3.70 ± 0.08d 3.16 ± 0.04f 6.20 ± 0.14d 3.39 ± 0.08e 4.46 ± 0.09c
K 3325.83 ± 83.43c 3516.51 ± 111.07d 4158.54 ± 99.29a 3554.55 ± 80.98d 3578.28 ± 95.21d 3165.47 ± 67.11d
Mg 630.63 ± 17.51c 592.81 ± 11.93d 606.55 ± 17.32cd 887.89 ± 20.04a 821.58 ± 17.91d 794.79 ± 12.45d
Mn 0.44 ± 0.01d 0.70 ± 0.02d 0.69 ± 0.02d 0.68 ± 0.02 d 0.86 ± 0.02a 0.55 ± 0.01c
Na 1209.21 ± 32.09d 1440.73 ± 39.94a 1361.45 ± 30.09d 1285.19 ± 26.22c 1253.65 ± 28.78cd 1204.93 ± 29.30d
Zn 1.65 ± 0.04e 2.34 ± 0.05c 2.19 ± 0.05d 2.76 ± 0.07d 0.37 ± 0.01f 3.04 ± 0.04a
Total 5,743.31 ± 120.58c 6,530.11 ± 156.09d 6,991.73 ± 211.17a 6,483.19 ± 154.05d 6,442.64 ± 151.48d 5,914.96 ± 126.98c

Table 8: Seasonal variation of mineral contents in the dried sea tangle (S. japonica) cultured at Kijang areaa.

Mineral Culture period
 Feb Mar Apr   May Jun  Jul 
Ca 900.91 ± 22.15a 913.15 ± 17.93a 913.58 ± 23.49a 789.90 ± 18.30b 730.30 ± 13.90c 771.72 ± 14.14b
Cu 0.56 ± 0.01c 0.40 ± 0.01d 0.94 ± 0.02 a 0.90 ± 0.02b 0.22 ± 0.00e 0.12 ± 0.00f
Fe 2.89 ± 0.06e 2.48 ± 0.06f 3.55 ± 0.10d 5.52 ± 0.15a 4.92 ± 0.05c 5.24 ± 0.15b
K 3683.32 ± 84.26c 4020.03 ± 114.39a 3847.32 ± 93.92b 3643.64 ± 47.59c 3260.86 ± 69.51d 3182.01 ± 41.93d
Mg 644.72 ± 17.15d 723.22 ± 15.96c 593.00 ± 18.77e 836.84 ± 25.04ab 852.96 ± 19.57a 820.82 ± 17.93b
Mn 0.77 ± 0.02a 0.62 ± 0.01d 0.73 ± 0.02b 0.47 ± 0.01e 0.65 ± 0.02c 0.31 ± 0.00f
Na 1378.52 ± 32.66b 1435.11 ± 43.64b 1613.96 ± 36.48a 1173.17 ± 25.60d 1141.14 ± 33.21d 1286.39 ± 25.75c
Zn 1.44 ± 0.03f 2.13 ± 0.06d 2.35 ± 0.05c 2.53 ± 0.08b 3.04 ± 0.06a 1.69 ± 0.05e
Total 6613.13 ± 165.73b 7097.14 ± 138.26a 6975.43 ± 183.16a 6452.97 ± 132.95b 5,994.09 ± 84.62c 6068.3 ± 96.61c

Table 9: Seasonal variation of mineral contents in the dried sea tangle (S. japonica) cultured at Wando areaa.

Amino acid Culture period
 Feb Mar  Apr
 May  Jun Jul
Aspartic acid 1574.47 ± 46.38a 1422.98 ± 34.04b 1415.36 ± 27.26b 1250.12 ± 35.73c 1087.68 ± 21.32d 1032.76 ± 25.39d
Threonine* 693.70 ± 15.40a 721.08 ± 14.38a 718.71 ± 15.30a 636.35 ± 20.0b 526.62 ± 14.11c 446.02 ± 9.84d
Serine 773.96 ± 17.51a 677.69 ± 14.53b 674.86 ± 8.57b 604.14 ± 13.78c 515.94 ± 3.45d 487.02 ± 9.61d
Glutamic acid 1718.74 ± 43.11a 1623.86 ± 51.29b 1615.31 ± 38.57b 1502.92 ± 34.24c 1223.20 ± 9.64d 1089.29 ± 23.09e
Proline 676.85 ± 18.80a 565.19 ± 11.37b 562.15 ± 16.05b 542.35 ± 12.24b 497.45 ± 9.05c 400.25 ± 6.27d
Glycine 895.55 ± 18.66a 821.67 ± 20.32b 817.98 ± 21.71b 765.58 ± 22.93c 622.11 ± 8.24d 536.65 ± 14.07e
Alanine 1105.96 ± 29.35a 995.41 ± 27.59b 990.79 ± 21.90b 724.24 ± 14.78c 602.70 ± 10.81e 666.54 ± 16.21d
Cystine  N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Valine* 592.06 ± 12.43c 773.56 ± 18.45a 769.75 ± 24.25a 694.82 ± 15.83b 557.45 ± 0.26d 384.18 ± 10.56e
Methionine 345.06 ± 10.97a 321.79 ± 7.45b 319.66 ± 7.33b 275.21 ± 5.95c 210.27 ± 2.02d 188.26 ± 3.41e
Isoleucine* 435.32 ± 9.14d 623.87 ± 14.91a 620.55 ± 18.74a 586.15 ± 13.93b 496.92 ± 4.37c 424.00 ± 9.11d
Leucine* 1094.16 ± 26.91b 1174.31 ± 23.05a 1168.03 ± 30.03a 997.35 ± 23.10c 842.37 ± 5.94d 656.88 ± 12.04e
Tyrosine* 366.60 ± 8.37a 299.66 ± 8.00b 297.48 ± 6.15b 285.19 ± 6.73c 272.69 ± 2.88d 222.90 ± 5.42e
Phenylalanine* 636.80 ± 12.54b 697.82 ± 15.93a 693.92 ± 19.42a 585.45 ± 15.41c 512.50 ± 4.42d 393.85 ± 11.04e
Histidine 325.11 ± 7.44c 394.50 ± 11.23a 394.62 ± 9.63a 342.34 ± 4.47b 304.46 ± 3.28d 279.06 ± 3.68e
Lysine* 653.32 ± 17.38b 700.03 ± 15.45a 696.74 ± 22.06a 513.45 ± 15.36c 480.60 ± 6.28d 430.39 ± 9.40e
Arginine 511.63 ± 11.16c 660.01 ± 15.48a 658.02 ± 14.11a 641.75 ± 14.39a 544.90 ± 3.66b 482.10 ± 5.36d
Total 12399.29 ± 293.74a 12473.43 ± 379.31a 12413.91 ± 280.61a 9986.94 ± 217.90b 9217.87 ± 129.32c 7783.17 ± 155.80d

Table 10: Seasonal variation of total amino acid contents in the dried sea tangle (S. japonica) cultured at Kijang areaa.

Amino acid
Amino acid Culture period
 Feb Mar  Apr
May Jun   Jul 
Aspatic acid 1311.08 ± 30.09a 1370.98 ± 38.01a 1350.66 ± 28.74a 1248.37 ± 37.12b 1197.13 ± 32.41c 987.30 ± 29.07d
Threonine* 662.58 ± 15.35a 686.76 ± 15.65a 685.58 ± 15.73a 593.84 ± 11.69b 519.70 ± 12.70c 403.39 ± 3.13d
Serine 622.40 ± 14.98b 648.74 ± 7.75a 643.88 ± 12.84ab 584.90 ± 15.87c 539.02 ± 13.64d 460.76 ± 11.59e
Glutamic acid 1490.24 ± 37.35b 1563.56 ± 30.46a 1541.39 ± 40.47ab 1490.61 ± 30.71b 1257.52 ± 8.65c 1170.02 ± 18.63d
Proline 518.72 ± 12.20bc 544.67 ± 13.83a 536.49 ± 10.88ab 511.15 ± 8.81c 485.48 ± 13.65d 384.76 ± 7.06e
Glycine 754.48 ± 14.36b 787.88 ± 16.64a 780.47 ± 12.97a 686.67 ± 14.51c 544.26 ± 9.64d 526.76 ± 12.53d
Alanine 913.89 ± 10.07b 955.28 ± 19.29a 945.36 ± 19.00ab 867.07 ± 24.20c 726.10 ± 12.95d 718.06 ± 19.23d
Cystine N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D. N.D.
Valine* 710.09 ± 15.14b 743.50 ± 16.17a 734.50 ± 17.42ab 581.42 ± 15.16c 515.00 ± 13.11d 458.48 ± 11.91e
Methionine 295.23 ± 6.77b 312.42 ± 7.13a 305.21 ± 6.73ab 227.70 ± 6.28c 211.71 ± 6.35d 194.27 ± 3.56e
Isoleucine* 572.64 ± 15.91b 601.11 ± 12.59a 592.24 ± 14.98ab 524.88 ± 6.90c 510.59 ± 6.78c 443.58 ± 5.14d
Leucine* 1077.85 ± 31.36b 1131.59 ± 21.26a 1114.74 ± 32.66ab 941.52 ± 28.54c 828.06 ± 12.26d 626.19 ± 19.45e
Tyrosine* 274.85 ± 5.60b 292.06 ± 6.82a 284.09 ± 6.35ab 224.07 ± 4.65c 193.09 ± 2.31e 205.54 ± 5.27d
Phenylalanine* 640.38 ± 14.90b 673.29 ± 21.10a 662.28 ± 15.18ab 551.35 ± 13.22c 490.96 ± 9.25d 368.61 ± 7.66e
Histidine 363.34 ± 10.38b 368.28 ± 8.41ab 376.21 ± 9.25a 313.23 ± 8.08c 283.56 ± 5.28d 241.80 ± 4.95e
Lysine* 642.57 ± 20.25b 671.81 ± 13.22a 664.74 ± 14.67a 542.88 ± 11.71c 493.55 ± 12.33d 431.80 ± 9.64e
Arginine 606.52 ± 13.83a 627.61 ± 14.36a 627.62 ± 12.39a 529.72 ± 14.13b 515.74 ± 14.81b 458.52 ± 13.99c
Total 11456.88 ± 261.03b 13776.53 ± 366.56a 11845.47 ± 251.11b 10498.01 ± 363.89c 9862.18 ± 7.70d 7609.83 ± 206.81e

Table 11: Seasonal variation of total amino acid contents in the dried sea tangle (S. japonica) cultured at Wando areaa

Discussion

There are big environmental differences between Wando and Kijang. Wando is semi-closed sea, and affected by big tide and fresh water inflow from many rivers around. Kijang has a small tide, but high temperature high salinity Tsushima current and low temperature low salinity North Korea current meets in this area. To our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluated differences in the nutritional composition of S. japonica with harvest area and culture period. We found that protein content of S. japonica was highest in February and the carbohydrate content was highest in July for the Kijang and Wando samples over the culture period from February to July 2011. A similar pattern was previously reported for the collection of Laminaria japonica [16]. Rosemberg and Ramus [17] found inverse relationships between carbohydrate and protein content in the red seaweed Gracilaria cervicornis during collection from July 2000 to June 2001. The seaweed protein content was lowest when photosynthetic activity and carbohydrate synthesis were highest. Shin et al. [18,19] found that carbohydrate content of Porphyra yezoensis increased with late culture period: Dec (39.4%), Feb (47.2%). However, the protein content decreased with late culture period: Dec (39.4%), Feb (34.6%). Lipid content was not affected by culture period. A positive correlation was also detected between carbohydrate and temperature, along with correlations with salinity and solar radiation, which indicated that carbohydrate synthesis and protein concentration are affected by several seasonal factors, including water temperature, nitrogen content, and light intensity [16,18]. The lipid content was low relative to the other chemical constituents. However, the lipid content observed in this study was similar to the content observed in other seaweeds, comprising from 1% to 3% of dry matter [20,21]. The ash content varied from 14.3% to 18.4% in our samples. It has been reported that the ash content fluctuates depending on the species, geographical location, and season investigated [22,23].

Component sugar compositions of Kijang and Wando samples were high in the following order: fucose, galactose, glucose, mannose, and so on. Polysaccharide of seaweed generally classified into cytoskeleton, intercellular mucoid, and storage polysaccharides, most of 2M HCl hydrolyzed polysaccharide from S. japonica in this study originated from storage polysaccharide [24]. In the Kijang and Wando samples, there was a variation in the sugar content depending on culture period (P<0.05). Galactose content of Kijang samples were higher than that of Wando in the all culture period (p<0.05).

Major fatty acid of Kijang and Wando samples is myristic acid (14:0), palmitic acid (16:0), oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid (18:2), α-linolenic acid (18:3), arachidonic acid (20:4), and lignoceric acid (24:0). Many researches on seaweed fatty acid composition have been reported [16,25-34], but there have been various fatty acid contents since which one is chosen for analysis among about 50 selling fatty acid standards. Moreover, fatty acid compositions of the seaweed are generally varied by analyzing its sampled part. In all the data, most fatty acid composition showed a variation with harvest area and culture period. Low fatty acids, such as lauric acid (12:0), stearic acid (18:0), and arachidic acid (20:0), showed different compositions on harvest area and culture period without tendency. These results are similar with previous report [16]. Linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid in Kijang samples and γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, and lignoceric acid in Wando samples increased with culture period, whereas α-linolenic acid in Kijang samples and stearic acid in Wando samples decreased. Both Kijang and Wando samples decreased with culture period in saturates, while those of polyenes increased.

In the mineral contents of Kijang and Wando S. japonica samples, the results show that S. japonica is rich in K and Na with moderate amounts of Ca and Mg whereas Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn are present in small quantities.

Major amino acid of Kijang and Wando S. japonica samples are glutamic acid, aspartic acid, leucine, alanine, glycine, valine, phenylalanine, but cystine was not detected. Glutamic acid and aspartic acid occupied over 20% in the total amino acid. It is known that amino acid of seaweed is generally composed of high contents in neutral and acidic amino acids such as alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, and proline [24], but S. japonica contained low glycine and proline contents. Sulfur amino acid, cysteine and cysteine, was not detected, methionine, histidine, and tyrosine were included in small amount. The average percentages of essential amino acids (EAA) in Kijang and Wando S. japonica samples were 39.5%, 37.8%, which is higher than the EAA requirement (32.3%) suggested by the Food and Agriculture Organization [35]. The amino acid composition observed in this study was similar to previous studies [36], where the sum of the average percentage of three amino acids, glutamic acid (13.5%), aspartic acid (11.9%), and alanine (7.9%), comprised the greatest proportion (33.3%) of TAA composition. Noda [37] suggested that the former three amino acids (glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and alanine) might produce the flavors specific to Nori (Porphyra). TAA content decreased at the end of the culture period. This phenomenon has also been observed in other seaweeds such as Enteromorpha prolifera, C. fulvescens, and Codium fragile [38].

In conclusion, we have ascertained that the monthly nutritional composition of S. japonica affected by harvest area and culture period from February to July 2011. S. japonica in Kijang and Wando showed the highest crude protein content in February and the highest carbohydrate content in July. Fucose was the most abundant and galactose the second most abundant in the monosaccharide composition profiles. Significant increases of the major fatty acids in Kijang (C18:2 n-6 and C20:4 n-6) and Wando (C18:3 n-6) were observed as the culture period progressed. The highest mineral content of both Kijang and Wando samples is potassium and followed by sodium, calcium, magnesium, and so on. In the total amino acid contents, Kijang samples increased from February to April but decreased from May to July, while Wando samples increased on March but decreased from April to July.

Acknowledgements

This study received financial support from the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, Republic of Korea.

References

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