Vertebrate Arylsulfatase K (ARSK): Comparative and Evolutionary Studies of the Lysosomal 2-Sulfoglucuronate Sulfatase
Received Date: Jul 12, 2017 / Accepted Date: Aug 14, 2017 / Published Date: Aug 21, 2017
Arylsulfatase K (ARSK) is one of 17 sulfatase gene family members encoded on the human genome for which a role has been recently identified as a lysosomal 2-sulfoglucuronate sulfatase. Vertebrate ARSK sequences shared 60-82% identity but only <27% identities with other arylsulfatase family members. Comparative enzyme structures were studied, including residues with predicted roles in forming N-glycosylation sites, Ca2+ binding and active site residues. Vertebrate ARSK genes usually contained 8 coding exons. A human ARSK gene promoter comprised CpG61 and multiple TFBS, which may be involved in signal transduction, transcription activation or regulating entry into cell division. Phylogenetic analyses examined evolutionary changes for the vertebrate ARSK and the invertebrate SUL1 genes. In summary, a major role for this enzyme as a 2-sulfoglucuronate sulfatase is supported which has been conserved throughout vertebrate evolution.
Keywords: Vertebrates; Arylsulfatase K; Amino acid sequence; 2-sulfoglucuronate sulfatase; Chromosome 5
ARSK: Arylsulfatase K; kbps: Kilobase Pairs; CpG Island: Multiple C (Cytosine)-G (Guanine) Dinucleotide Region; miRNA: microRNA Binding Region; BLAST: Basic Local Alignment Search Tool; BLAT: Blast-Like Alignment Tool; NCBI: National Center for Biotechnology Information; SWISS-MODEL: Automated Protein Structure Homology-Modeling Server
Seventeen human sulfatase gene families and fourteen mouse sulfatase gene families encode sulfatases which catalyse the hydrolysis of a range of biological sulfate esters in the body [1- 5]. The gene encoding arylsulfatase K (ARSK; EC 126.96.36.199) (ARSK in vertebrates; Arsk in rodents) was initially identified using bioinformatic methods through its conserved sulfatase active site signature sequence [1,6] and subsequently cloned, expressed in human cells, purified and biochemically characterized as an arylsulfatase , recently identified as catalysing the hydrolysis of the 2-O-sulfate group from 2-sulfoglucuronate . Kinetic properties for human ARSK were similar to those of several other lysosomal sulfatases and an established role in the degradation of sulfated glycosaminoglycans has been identified . In addition, low sequence identities with other human sulfatases have been reported, indicating that this gene and enzyme represents a distinct form of human sulfatase. Broad ARSK mRNA expression in human tissues has been reported which suggested that a ubiquitous biological arylsulfate substrate was the target for ARSK physiologically . Previous studies have shown that it comprises several domains: an N-terminus signal peptide (residues 1-22); five Ca2+ binding sites (1 Ca2+ per subunit); two active site residues (313Asp and 314His); and multiple N-glycosylation sites .
This paper examines comparative amino acid sequences for vertebrate ARSK proteins, particularly in relation to the identification of key structures for this conserved enzyme; exonic structures for vertebrate ARSK genes; potential sites for regulating human ARSK gene expression; alignment and evolutionary studies of vertebrate ARSK and invertebrate arylsulfatase (SUL1) and comparisons of ARSK structures with other sulfatase gene families.
Gene (ARSK) and protein (ARSK) structures
Vertebrate ARSK amino acid sequences were derived from BLAST studies using NCBI web tools (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/)  using the human ARSK sequence [1,7] (Table 1). BLAT analyses were subsequently undertaken for each of the predicted ARSK amino acid sequences using the UC Santa Cruz (UCSC) Genome Browser to obtain predicted locations, exon boundaries and gene sizes for each of the vertebrate ARSK and SUL1 genes (Table 1) . Structural features for the major human mRNA ARSK isoform were also examined using AceView .
|ARSK||Human||Homo sapiens||5:95,555,279-95,603,523||8 (+ve)||48,245||NM_198150||Q6UWY0||536||61,450 (9.0)||1…22|
|ARSK||Baboon||Papio anubis||6:89,585,690-89,631,202||8 (+ve)||45,513||XP_003899979*||A0A096MMD3||536||61,368 (8.8)||1…15|
|ARSK||Mouse||Mus musculus||13:76,062,259-76,098,499||8 (-ve)||36,241||NM_029847||Q9D2L1||556||63,100 (8.7)||1…18|
|ARSK||Cow||Bos taurus||7:97,276,428-97,331,337||8 (+ve)||54,910||BC118383+||Q148F3||540||61,361 (9.1)||1…15|
|ARSK||Tasmanian devil||Sarcophilus harrisii||^GL841273:981,226-1,016,664||8 (-ve)||35,439||XP_003759881*||G3WFM9||553||63,325 (8.3)||1…21|
|ARSK||Chicken||Gallus gallus||Z:57,238,252-57,248,657||8 (-ve)||10,406||NM_001031415||Q5ZK90||535||61,341 (8.7)||1…24|
|ARSK||Frog||Xenopus tropicalis||^KB021649:36,197,268-36,213,144||8 (-ve)||15,877||XP_002933485*||Q0IHJ2||536||60,608 (6.5)||1…24|
|ARSK||Zebra fish||Danio rerio||5:50,252,467-50,263,734||8 (+ve)||11,268||NM_001077157||Q08CJ7||523||59,470 (6.3)||1…16|
|SUL1||Worm||Caenorhabditis elegans||X:3,267,384-3,270,766||16 (-ve)||3,231||NM_076159||A8XJG0||704||83,303 (8.8)||1…20|
Table 1: Vertebrate ARSK and worm SUL1 genes and proteins. RefSeq: the reference amino acid sequence; *Predicted amino acid sequence; GenBank IDs are derived from NCBI http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/; UNIPROT refers to UniprotKB/Swiss-Prot IDs for individual ARSK and SUL1 proteins (http://kr.expasy.org); ^ refers to a scaffold; bps refers to base pairs of nucleotide sequences; pI refers to theoretical isoelectric points; the number of coding exons are listed.
Structures and properties of vertebrate ARSK
Predicted structures for vertebrate ARSK proteins were obtained using the SWISS-MODEL web-server (http://swissmodel.expasy. org/)  and a tertiary structure reported for a putative sulfatase from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (PDB:1b5q), with a modelling residue range of 35-475 for human ARSK . Predicted signal peptide cleavage sites, N-glycosylation sites, molecular weights and theoretical isoelectric points for vertebrate ARSK proteins were obtained using Expasy web tools (http://au.expasy.org/tools/pi_tool.html).
Human ARSK tissue expression
Amino acid sequence alignments, identities and phylogenetic analyses
Clustal Omega was used to generate amino acid sequence alignments and percentage identities for vertebrate ARSK and other human arylsulfatase sequences (Tables 1 and 2) . Phylogenetic analyses used the http://www.phylogeny.fr/ bioinformatic portal  to reconstruct vertebrate ARSK evolutionary relationships with a C. elegans SUL1 gene and protein (Table 1).
|1||ARSA||188.8.131.52||22:51,066,606-51,061,176||8 (-ve)||2,626||NM_000487||P15289||507||53,588 (5.6)||25|
|ARSG||3.1.6.-||17:68,307,494-68,420,460||11 (+ve)||112,967||NM_001267727||Q96EG1||525||57,061 (6.2)||20|
|GALNS||184.108.40.206||16:88,880850-88,923,285||14 (-ve)||42,436||NM_000512||P34059||522||58,026 (6.3)||21|
|2||ARSB||220.127.116.11||5:78,076,223-78,281,071||8 (-ve)||204,849||NM_000046||P15848||533||59,687 (8.4)||19|
|ARSI||18.104.22.168||5:150,297,217-150,302,373||2 (-ve)||5,157||NM_001012301||Q5FYB1||569||64,030 (8.8)||19|
|ARSJ||3.1.6.-||4:113,902,277-113,978,834||2 (-ve)||76,558||NM_024590||Q5FYB0||599||67,235 (9.2)||21|
|3||ARSD||22.214.171.124||X:2,907,274-2,929,275||10 (-ve)||22,002||NM_009589||P51689||593||64,859 (6.8)||24|
|ARSE||126.96.36.199||X:2,934,835-2,958,434||10 (-ve)||23,600||NM_000047||P51690||589||65,669 (6.5)||24|
|ARSF||188.8.131.52||X:3,072,024-3,112,553||10 (+ve)||40,530||NM_001201538||P54793||590||65,940 (6.8)||24|
|ARSH||184.108.40.206||X:3,006,613-3,033,382||9 (+ve)||26,770||NM_001011719||Q5FYA8||562||63,525 (8.5)||24|
|STS||220.127.116.11||X:7,253,194-7,350,258||10 (+ve)||97,065||NM_001320750||P08842||583||65,492 (7.6)||23|
|4||SULF1||3.1.6.-||8:69,563,976-69,638,860||18 (+ve)||74,885||NM_001128204||Q8IWU6||871||101,027 (9.2)||21|
|SULF2||3.1.6.-||20:47,659,398-47,757,363||20 (-ve)||97,966||NM_001161841||Q8IWU5||870||100,455 (9.3)||22|
|GNS||18.104.22.168||12:64,716,744-64,759,276||14 (-ve)||42,353||NM_002076||P15586||552||62,081 (8.6)||22|
|5||ARSK||3.1.6.-||5:95,555,279-95,603,523||8 (+ve)||48,245||NM_198150||Q6UWY0||526||61,450 (9.0)||100|
|6||SGSH||22.214.171.124||17:80,210,455-80,220,313||8 (-ve)||9,859||NM_000199||P51668||502||56,695 (6.5)||22|
|7||IDS||126.96.36.199||X:149,482,749-149,505,137||9 (-ve)||22,389||NM_000202||P22304||550||61,873 (5.2)||26|
Table 2: Proposed classification of ARSK and other human arylsulfatase genes and proteins. Based on a previous proposal for the proposed classification of human arylsulfatase genes and proteins into 7 groups ; ARSK data is highlighted in red; pI=Isoelectric point; bps=Base pairs of nucleotide sequence; % identities with the human ARSK amino acid sequence are shown; ARSA: arylsulfatase A; ARSG: Arylsulfatase G; GALNS: N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase; ARSB: Arylsulfatase B; ARSI: Arylsulfatase I; ARSJ: Arylsulfatase J; ARSD: Arylsulfatase D; ARSE: Arylsulfatase E; ARSF: Arylsulfatase F; ARSH: arylsulfatase H; STS: Sterylsulfatase; SULF1: Extracellular sulfatase 1; SULF2: Extracellular sulfatase 2; GNS: N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfatase; SGSH: N-sulfatase N-sulphoglucosamine sulphohydrolase; IDS: Iduronate 2-sulfatase.
Results and Discussion
ARSK and other human sulfatase genes and proteins: Proposed classification
Table 2 summarises a classification scheme for 17 human sulfatase genes and proteins previously proposed, based on phylogenetic and amino acid sequence comparisons for human SULF1 and SULF2 (extracellular sulfatases 1 and 2)  and the other 15 human sulfatases, including the human ARSK gene and protein. Seven groups of these genes and proteins were identified, including ARS group 5 for a single human ARSK gene, which encodes a distinct 526 amino acid sequence enzyme and shares <27% sequence identities with other human arylsulfatases. This is in contrast to the sequence identities observed for other human enzyme ARS groups: Group 1 (ARSA, ARSG and GALNS) (33-39% identical); group 2 (ARSB, ARSI and ARSJ) (54- 59%) ; group 3 (ARSD, ARSE, ARSF, ARSH and STS) (57-64%) ; and group 4 ARS sequences (SULF1, SULF2 and GNS) (42-67%) . Groups 6 (SGSH) and 7 (IDS)  enzymes, however, exhibited distinct amino acid sequences which were 22% and 26% identical, respectively, with the human ARSK amino acid sequence (Table 2). With the exception of the group 3 gene cluster previously reported on the human X-chromosome for ARSD, ARSE, ARSF, ARSH and STS , other human ARS genes are separately located on the human genome, including ARSK on human chromosome 5 [6,7].
Vertebrate ARSK and SUL1 amino acid sequences
The amino acid sequence for human ARSK [6,7] and the deduced amino acid sequences for mouse (Mus musculus), chicken (Gallus gallus) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) ARSK are shown in Figure 1 (Table 1). These and other vertebrate ARSK sequences were more than 60% identical, suggesting that they are members of the same arylsulfatase gene family. In contrast, the human ARSK protein sequence were < 27% identical with other human arylsulfatase families (Table 2), confirming the separate family status for ARSK enzymes. Vertebrate ARSK enzymes contained 523-556 amino acids (Figure 1 and Table 1), including key residues and arylsulfatase domains previously reported [6,7]: Active site residues (human ARSK numbers used) binding calcium ions (Ca2+) (40Asp, 313Asp, 314His) or substrate (80Cys; 128Lys; 208His; 251His; 326Lys) were conserved, including 80Cys, which is post-translationally modified to form C(alpha)-formylglycine by sulfatase modifying factor 1 (SUMF1) within the active site of related sulfatase gene families .
Figure 1: Amino acid sequence alignments for vertebrate ARSK sequences. Sources of ARSK sequence sources are given in Table 1; * shows identical residues for ARSK subunits; : similar alternate residues; . dissimilar alternate residues; predicted N-signal peptides residues are in kkaki; N-glycosylated and potential N-glycosylated Asn sites are in pink; the Ca2+ binding residues are shown in green; active site residues are shown in blue; A refers to active site Cys80; predicted α-helices for human ARSK are in shaded yellow and predicted β-sheets are in grey and numbered in sequence from the N-terminus; bold underlined font shows residues corresponding to predicted exon start sites; exon numbers refer to human ARSK gene exons.
The N-terminus leader peptide (1-22) revealed similarities in sequence, containing multiple hydrophobic residues. Seven N-glycosylation sites conserved for the mammalian ARSK sequences, including 108Asn, 166Asn, 193Asn, 262Asn, 375Asn, 413Asn and 498Asn, are designated as N-glycosylation sites 1-7 (Figure 1). These were found for all primate ARSK sequences examined (human, chimp, gorilla, gibbon, squirrel monkey, baboon, rhesus monkey, tarsier and marmoset), although the orangutan (Pongo abelii) ARSK sequence, lacked N-glycosylation site 1. Mouse and rat ARSK sequences also contained N-glycosylation sites 1-7, whereas the cow (Bos taurus), pig (Sus scrofa), horse (Equus caballus) and sheep (Ovis aries) ARSK sequences lacked N-glycosylation site 2 (data not shown). The chicken ARSK sequence contained seven N-glycosylation sites, although sites 1 and 2 were located in different positions within the protein. The zebra fish ARSK sequence contained six N-glycosylation sites, retaining sites 1, 4 and 6 as for the human sequence, but incorporating 3 other sites throughout the sequence. Multiple N-linked glycosylation sites were a feature of this enzyme ensuring that the vertebrate ARSK glycoprotein is suitably localized within the cell to perform its metabolic functions.
Vertebrate ARSK protein structures
Predictions of secondary and tertiary structures for human ARSK are presented in Figures 1 and 2, generated using the tertiary structure for a putative sulfatase from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (PDB:1b5qB) (modelling residue range of 35-475). A predicted human ARSK secondary structure for residues 476-536 was obtained using the SWISS-MODEL web-server . The predicted 3D structure for ARSK shows a large active site cleft containing a metal (Ca2+) ion. The enzyme has 2 major domains, with the active site at the base of a cleft on the larger domain, corresponding to the N-terminal region of the enzyme, with the other domain predominantly comprising the C-terminal domain, containing a sequence of beta sheets (β12-14) and a large alpha helix (α13). The C-terminal α13 helix was not fully identified in the predicted ARSK 3D structure since the modeling range fell short of the complete C-terminal sequence, as were two other C-terminal α helices (α14 and α15). 3D structures for other human arylsulfatase sequences have been previously reported, revealing similar tertiary subunit structures, reflecting strong conservation in amino acid sequences and structures [17-20].
Figure 2: Predicted tertiary structure for human ARSK. Predicted human ARSK subunit structure is based on the structure for a putative sulfatase from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (PDB:1b5qB), with a modelling residue range of 30-475 and obtained using the SWISS MODEL web site . The rainbow color code describes the 3-D structures from the N- (blue) to C-termini (red color); predicted α-helices, β-sheets and proposed active site cleft are shown.
Human ARSK tissue expression
Figure 3 summarizes the tissues distribution profile for ARSK transcripts from human tissues. A previous study has reported a broad ARSK mRNA expression profile in human tissues suggesting that a ubiquitous biological arylsulfate substrate was available for ARSK physiologically , which has been recognized as lysosomal 2-sulfoglucuronate sulfate . ARSK displayed highest expression levels in fibroblasts and tibial nerve cells, and modest expression levels in other tissues of the body but with very low whole blood expression levels.
Figure 3: Tissue expression for human ARSK gene. RNA-seq gene expression profiles across 53 selected tissues (or tissue segments) were examined from the public database for human ARSK, based on expression levels for 175 individuals  (Data Source: GTEx Analysis Release V6p (dbGaP Accession phs000424. v6.p1) (http://www.gtex.org). Tissues: 1. Adipose-Subcutaneous; 2. Adipose-Visceral (Omentum); 3. Adrenal gland; 4. Artery-Aorta; 5. Artery-Coronary; 6. Artery- Tibial; 7. Bladder; 8. Brain-Amygdala; 9. Brain-Anterior cingulate Cortex (BA24); 10. Brain-Caudate (basal ganglia); 11. Brain-Cerebellar Hemisphere; 12. Brain- Cerebellum; 13. Brain-Cortex; 14. Brain-Frontal Cortex; 15. Brain-Hippocampus; 16. Brain-Hypothalamus; 17. Brain-Nucleus accumbens (basal ganglia); 18. Brain- Putamen (basal ganglia); 19. Brain-Spinal Cord (cervical c-1); 20. Substantia nigra; 21. Breast-Mammary Tissue; 22. Cells-EBV-transformed lymphocytes; 23. Cells- Transformed fibroblasts; 24. Cervix-Ectocervix; 25. Cervix-Endocervix; 26. Colon-Sigmoid; 27. Colon-Transverse; 28. Esophagus-GastroesophagealBrain-Junction; 29. Esophagus-Mucosa; 30. Esophagus-Muscularis; 31. Fallopian Tube; 32. Heart-Atrial Appendage; 33. Heart-Left Ventricle; 34. Kidney-Cortex; 35. Liver; 36. Lung; 37. Minor Salivary Gland; 38. Muscle-Skeletal; 39. Nerve-Tibial; 40. Ovary; 41. Pancreas; 42. Pituitary; 43. Prostate; 44. Skin-Not Sun Exposed (Suprapubic); 45. Skin-Sun Exposed (Lower leg); 46. Small Intestine-Terminal Ileum; 47. Spleen; 48. Stomach; 49. Testis; 50. Thyroid; 51. Uterus; 52. Vagina; 53. Whole Blood.
Gene locations, exonic structures and regulatory sequences for vertebrate ARSK genes
The predicted chromosome and strand locations and exonic structures for vertebrate ARSK genes are presented in Table 1, together with a proposed ancestral invertebrate SUL1 gene. The predicted vertebrate ARSK genes were transcribed on the negative DNA strand (mouse, tasmanian devil (marsupial genome), chicken and frog genomes) or the positive DNA strand (human, baboon, cow and zebra fish genomes). Predicted exonic start sites for human, mouse, chicken and zebra fish ARSK genes (8 coding exons in each case) are shown in Figure 1, in identical or similar positions to those predicted for the human ARSK gene.
The human ARSK transcript was ~50 kbps in length with CpG61 and several Transcription Factor Binding Sites (TFBS) located in the 5’-untranslated promoter region of human ARSK on chromosome 5, and a 3’-untranslated region (UTR) lacking any detectable microRNA target sites (Figure 4). CpG61 contained 762 bps with a C plus G count of 463 bps, a C or G content of 61% and showed a ratio of observed to expect CpG of 0.87. This ARSK CpG Island may play a key role in gene regulation and may contribute to the broad gene expression observed in human tissues (Figure 3) [7,8,21,22]. Ten TFBS sites were colocated with CpG61 in the human ARSK promoter region which may contribute to the ubiquitous tissue expression. Of special interest among these identified ARSK TFBS were the following: SMARCA4 (2 sites), encoding transcriptional activator BRG which controls transcription of genes important for the G1/S phase transition of the cell cycle ; STAT1, a signal transducer, transcription activator and modulator of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation; RB1 (2 sites), retinoblastoma associated protein, and RBL2 (3 sites), are key regulators of entry into cell division ; ETS1, protein C-ets-1 transcription factor, which controls the expression of cytokine and chemokine genes ; and CTCF, CCCTC-binding factor, which organizes higher order chromatin structure, regulates gene expression and plays a role in learning and memory .
Figure 4: Human ARSK gene: structure and major transcript. Derived from the AceView website http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/IEB/Research/Acembly/ ; shown with capped 5’- and 3’- ends for the predicted mRNA sequences; NM refers to the NCBI reference sequence; coding exons are in pink; the direction for transcription is shown as 5’ → 3’; a large CpG61 island at the gene promoter is shown; predicted Transcription Factor Binding Sites (TFBS) for the human ARSK gene promoter.
Evolution of ARSK and other ARS sequences
A phylogenetic tree (Figure 5) was calculated by aligning vertebrate ARSK amino acid sequences, which was ‘rooted’ with a worm (Caenorhabditis elegans) arylsulfatase (SUL1) sequence (Table 1). The phylogram showed clustering of the vertebrate ARSK sequences which were consistent with their evolutionary relatedness and separation of the ARSK protein group, which was distinct from the worm SUL1 sequence. It is apparent that ARSK is an ancient protein in vertebrate evolution, being encoded among all of the vertebrate genomes examined. In addition, a proposed common ancestor for ARSK and other ARS genes may have arisen during early vertebrate or invertebrate evolution, which predated the appearance of fish during vertebrate evolution. Moreover, multiple vertebrate sulfatase genes may have arisen independently of the ARSK gene duplication step, generating many arylsulfatase genes, consistent with the evolutionary appearance of seven distinct groups and 17 human sulfatase gene families (Table 2).
Figure 5: Vertebrate ARSK phylogenetic tree with the C. elegans SUL1 sequence. The tree is labeled with the ARSK and sulfatase-like (SUL1) name and the name of the organism with the worm (Caenorhabditis elegans) SUL1 sequence, which was used to ‘root’ the tree. Note the major cluster corresponding to the vertebrate ARSK gene family. A genetic distance scale is shown. The number of times a clade (sequences common to a node or branch) occurred in the bootstrap replicates are shown. Replicate values of 0.9 or more, which are highly significant, are shown with 100 bootstrap replicates performed in each case.
Vertebrate ARSK genes and encoded proteins represent a distinct gene and protein arylsulfatase family which share key conserved sequences and domains reported for other arylsulfatase proteins previously studied [2-5,17-20]. The metabolic role for ARSK has recently been established and the natural substrate for this enzyme described as lysosomal 2-sulfoglucuronate, a key enzyme in the catabolism of heparin sulfate and dermatan sulfate . A single gene (ARSK/Arsk) encodes this enzyme among the vertebrate genomes studied (Table 1), which is moderately expressed in a wide range of human tissues, but with highest levels of expression in fibroblasts (Figure 4). ARSK usually contained 8 coding exons on the negative or positive strands, depending on the vertebrate genome (Table 1). The human ARSK gene contained a large CpG island within the promoter region, with several transcription factor binding sites collocated within the ARSK gene promoter region (Figure 4). Predicted secondary and tertiary structures for human ARSK showed similarities with reported 3D structures for other arylsulfatases [17-20]. Structural domains reported for human ARSK, included the N-terminal signal peptide; the active site (including a Ca2+ binding site), which is responsible for arylsulfatase activity; and seven predominantly conserved N-glycosylation sites, which ensured that ARSK was suitably micro localized within the cell as a glycoprotein. Phylogenetic studies suggested that the ARSK gene appeared early in evolution, prior to the appearance of bony fish.
I thank Dr. Laura Cox from the Texas Biomedical Research Institute for useful discussions.
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Citation: Holmes RS (2017) Vertebrate Arylsulfatase K (ARSK): Comparative and Evolutionary Studies of the Lysosomal 2-Sulfoglucuronate Sulfatase. J Data Mining Genomics Proteomics 8: 212. DOI: 10.4172/2153-0602.1000212
Copyright: © 2017 Holmes RS. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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