Received Date: June 16, 2015; Accepted Date: July 26, 2015; Published Date: August 14, 2015
Citation: Alecsandrovich KP, Magizov RR, Chirkov DK (2015) Victimological Measurement of Crime in the Republican of Tatar Stan. Social Crimonol 3:125. doi:10.4172/2375-4435.1000125
Copyright: © 2015 Alecsandrovich KP, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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The purpose of the study measuring the real state of crime in Republic of Tatarstan on the basis of official victimological statistics. The scientific value and significance of the study lies in the fact that for the first time a study of crime in the Republic of Tatar Stan is through the analysis of statistics on victims of crime, which allows to evaluate the crime through qualitative indicators, reflecting its negative consequences for society (criminal mortality and criminal injuries). This study may affect the formation of a regional program to combat crime in the medium term.
An effective response to crime is not possible without an analysis of the social consequences of crime, which can be, if not in scale, but getting out of official criminal statistics. It should be borne in mind that the statistics only in the most general form can identify trends that clearly reflect the state of crime in society. Modern Russian crime statistics allows us to study various aspects of criminal behavior in the community, including victimization, forming its own information database victimization statistics. Victimological statistic – is one of the most important areas of modern legal statistics that best describes the negative social consequences of crime [1-4], referring to their specific term Sacrifice crime . It should be understood that not one type of crime statistics is not an ideal tool for measuring its negative consequences. The obvious shortcomings of crime statistics: incomplete and distorted, write modern Russian researchers [6,7]. However, despite this attitude to statistical crime indicators it would be unwise to ignore them completely. Moreover, analysis of the main indicators characterizing the Sacrifice crime, is extremely necessary, because it corrects the crime statistics, which has a relatively long period of time shows a decline in the crime rate in modern Russian and its regions . Selecting the territorial limits due to the fact in the Republican of Tatarstan is a common leader among Russian regions in terms of economic development, the introduction of innovative technology, quality of life and other social indicators also have experience of their own victimization studies of certain types of crime in this region of the Russian Federation [9-11]. The choice of the study period 2009- 2013 due to the fact that it is characterized by a steady decline in the crime rate in Russia, including the Republic of Tatarstan. According to official statistics, if in 2009 in the Russian Federation were recorded 2,994,820 crimes, by 2013 there was a decrease to 2,206,249 crime offenses, i.e., 26.3%, or more than a quarte . In the Republic of Tatarstan in the same period, the rate of decline of crime was higher and amounted to 34.9%. If in 2009 it was accounted 70,623 crimes, in 2013 the figure was 46021. However, in the under review period the number of recorded victims in criminal cases has decreased as a whole of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tatarstan. If in 2009 in the Russian Federation, it was recognized taken into account and registered 2,241,710 victims, in 2013-1,822,767, which is almost less them 19% . In the Republic of Tatarstan in 2009 it was accounted 55,701 victims in criminal cases, and in 2013 only 38,055 or 31.8% less. This indicates that in the Republic of Tatarstan, as in the whole of the Russian Federation on a par with the redaction in the crime rate, also is
reducing the number of victims of crime, albeit at a slower pace than the number of registered crimes. However domestic experts don’t carried out criminological research devoted to the analysis of these discrepancies and the whole sacrifice of crime in Russia and its regions. Besides criminological analysis sacrifice in Russia crime in its most general form was introduced only in 2005, and even without a breakdown to regions . This state of affairs in the Russian criminological science is not conductive to the development of science-based responses to crime and shows the relevance of the study using statistical information the phenomenon sacrifice crime in various regions (Figures 1 and 2). In order to identify the main trends of sacrifice crime in the Republic of Tatarstan is necessary to carry out criminological analyses of the main victimization statistics of crime. To achieve these goals in impossible without a thorough analysis of statistical indicators characterizing, The dynamics of the sacrifice of crime, The nature of the sacrifice of crime, Structural regularities sacrifice certain categories of crime victims with increased criminal victimization women and children. Referring to the statistical indicators sacrifice crime in the Republic of Tatarstan, we find a positive trend–an annual decrease in the number of victims of crimes in the under period review, which is as follows in 2009 they were recognized and accounted for 55,701 in 2010, 47,299 in 2011, 43,826 in 2012-42,270 in 2013-38,055 (Table 1).
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Table 1: Victims of Crime in the Republic of Tatarstan (2009-2013).
There clearly seen steady positive trend to a decrease in the total number of victims of criminal behavior in the modern Russian society. Among the most important indicators of the sacrifice of crime should the structure of include victims. In the analyzed period among the victims of criminal behavior by law enforcement agencies have been reported and accounted 194,492 individuals and 32,659 legal entities. The ratio of these categories of victims shows that individuals almost six times more likely to be victims of crime than the legal. Turning to the analysis of crime sacrifice statistics, we see that in 2009 the entities were recognized as victims of crime 7979 times, in 2010- 6853 times in 2011- 5658 times, in 2012- 6203 times, in 2013- 5906 times . The rate of decline was 25.2% or 6.6% lower than the average for the total number of recorded victims of criminal behavior in the Republic of Tatarstan (Figure 3). It should be noted that at the same time individuals become victims of crimes in 2009-47722 times, in 2010- 40,446 times, in 2011- 38,168 times, in 2012-36,067 times, in 2013- 32089 times. The rate of decline among the individuals sacrifices crime persons amounted to 32.8%, or slightly higher than the overall rate of the overall reduction of crime victims. Here, attention is drawn to the general trend of steady reduction in the number recorded of crimes victims affects both categories of victims, albeit at different rates and significant fluctuations (Figure 4). Of course, the sociality dangerous consequences of crime increases if its victims are the most vulnerable segments of the population women, children and the elderly persons. But the modern Russian crime statistics by age criteria allocates only minor victims of crime, and the elderly persons are taken into account in general terms, not standing out in a particular age group. In connection with this we cannot consider the elderly persons as the crime victims, due to the lack of statistics, limiting our scientific curiosity only with victims of crime among women and children. During the study period the total number of female victims are 85,981 persons or 44.2% of the total number of victims from individuals in the Republic of Tatarstan. They have been registered and considered by law enforcement agencies in 2009- 20605 people, in 2010- 18,355, in 2011- 17,221 in 2012- 15,597 in 2013- 14,203. Therefore in the review period the total number of registered women victims of crimes decrease to 31.1%. This figure is 1.7% less than the reducing counted number of total within the same period (Figure 5). If you look at the statistical indicators that characterized the total number of child victims of criminal behavior, we find that in the period under consideration in the Republic of Tatarstan, they were recognized as such by 9754 people or 5.0% of the total number of victims from individuals. Referring to the dynamics of the recognition of minors as victims in criminal cases, we find that in 2009 they were recognized such as 2748 people, in 2010-2087, in 2011-1879, in 2012-1510, in 2013-1530. Here we also observe a general tendency of reducing the number of victims to 44.3%, but more alarming – lowering suspension and a slight increase in this indicator in 2013 (Figure 6).
The most important indicator of the quality of the sacrifice crime is the total number of victims of the crimes committed (criminal mortality). In the analyzed period in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan they were killed 2704 people or 1.4% of the total number of registered victims from individuals, among them a third of 39.1% is the most vulnerable segments of the population: 162 persons or 6% were minors and 896 or 33.1% women. As the impartial official statistics say that in the Republic of Tatarstan in 2009 they were considered dead of crime 546 people, in 2010-454, in 2011-450, in 2012-537, in 2013- 717. Here we see a decrease by 17.6% in crime mortality in 2010-2011 compared to 2009 and the subsequent increase to 37% in 2012-2013. If we compare the quantitative indicators of criminal death in the Republic of Tatarstan in 2009 and 2013, we notice an obvious trend – the growth of criminal mortality to 23.8% while reducing the level of crime and criminal victimization of the population (Figure 7). Negative indicators of criminals deaths in the Republic of Tatarstan exacerbated by several other indicators of child mortality and criminal mortality among women. Referring to the statistical indicators characterizing children’s criminal mortality, we find them fold increase. If in 2009 the total numbers of those killed in the commission of crimes of person under age 23, was a man, he later this quantitative indicator increases. In 2010, he was 26, in 2011 25, in 2012-33, in 2013-55 (Figure 8). The rate of growth in the period under consideration of infant mortality in the Republic of Tatarstan of criminal behavior amounted to more than double to 239.1%, while in the whole of the Russian Federation, the figure was only 25.8% in the overall structure of recorded crime victim under age child mortality rate was 1.7%, slightly lower than Russia’s total, which is 1.9%. Perhaps the most basic indicator characterizing the sacrifice crime person under age. If in 2009 the proportion of child crime deaths was only 0.83% of the total number of recorded victims of minor age, in 2010-1.25%, in 2011-1.33%, in 2012-2.19%, in 2013- 3.59%. There is clear growth trend of infant mortality rate in the structure of the criminal victims of minor age (Figure 9). Analysis of the quantitative and qualitative indicators of child mortality of crime leads to the conclusion that in the Republic of Tatarstan is obvious steady upward trend of infant mortality in criminal while reducing the total number of recorded crime victims under age. This testifies the negative changes in the nature of crime. No less interesting statistics that characterize female mortality from criminal attacks in the Republic of Tatarstan. Here we note that in 2009, the law enforcement agencies has been identified and accounted 199 women’s deaths from criminal attacks, in 2010- 142, in 2011- 155, in 2012- 179, in 2013- 211.
Quantitative indicators victimological statistics show that there was a decrease of criminal women’s death on 28.6% in 2010, but there is an increase in female mortality crime in absolute terms since 2011. It rose by 155,61%, in 2013 comparing with 2010. Although the growth rate of female deaths 2013, compared to the base year 2009 amounted to 10% (Figure 10). If we turn to a relative indicator the relative weight of death among women in the general structure of women victims of crime, we found several other trends. Throughout the period, the proportion of female deaths from criminal behavior in the general structure of women victims of crime grew. If at the beginning of the study period, it was 0.97% in the subsequent varied, but usually increased. In 2010, the rate was 0.77%, in 2011-0.9%, in 2012-1.15%, in 2013-1.56%. Attention is drawn to the fact that the overall structure of women victims of crime recorded in the review period women’s mortality rate was only 1.04%. Analysis of quantitative and qualitative indicators of female deaths from crime leads to the conclusion that in the Republic of Tatarstan there is a trend to an increase in female deaths from criminal attacks while reducing the total number of registered women victims of crimes. It also demonstrates the adverse trends in modern crime deteriorating nature of social negative effects of crime. Victimological assessment of criminal behavior in the Republic of Tatarstan may not be complete without reference to the assessment of quantitative indicators reflect victims personal injury.
Domestic Victimological statistics allocates only infliction of serious or moderate injury victims. In the period under discussion, according to official statistics, the total number of victims have received serious bodily harm was 3364 and the average severity 920 or 1.73% and 0.47%, respectively, in the structure of the victims of criminal behavior among individuals. Analysis of statistical indicators characterizing the number of victims who have received serious bodily injury as a result of the commission of crimes, shows that in recent years they tend to increase their total number. If in 2009 was registered 661 victims who have suffered serious bodily harm, then in 2010-592, in 2011-609, in 2012-663, in 2013-836. Increase in the number of victims who have received serious bodily injury during the study period was 20.9%, neutralized relatively good index of 2010- 2011. Of course, the general trends of the subject we figure reflected in the quantitative indicators characterizing the infliction of grievous bodily harm to minors and women. Attention is drawn to the fact that the total number of minors who have received serious bodily injury, in the period under consideration, was 281 people or 8.4% of the total number of recorded victims of this category. At the same time, the number of women receiving grievous bodily harm, was 1,125 or 33.4% of the total. At victims of minor age was 2.9% and women 1.3%. Statistical indicators characterizing the number of juveniles suffered serious injury in the Republic of Tatarstan, as follows: in 2009-55, in 2010-47, in 2011-45, in 2012- 58, in 2013-76. Increase in the number of recorded underage victims of criminal behavior, received serious bodily injury, was 27.6% and demonstrates the adverse trends in crime, neutralizing the positive changes in 2010-2011.Quantitative statistical indicators characterizing the infliction of criminal behavior of serious harm to the health of women in the Republic of Tatarstan, distributed as follow: In 2009-243, in 2010-187, in 2011-190, in 2012-238, in 2013- 267. During the reporting period increase in the number of women victims of criminal behavior, received serious bodily injury was 9%, neutralizing the positive performance of 2010 and shows the adverse trends in crime. Consequently, statistical indicators characterizing the number of victims who have received serious bodily injury, in the context of categories of minors and women indicates unfavorable trends in crime in the Republic of Tatarstan significant increase in the number of victims of these categories in the discussed period. No less significant indicators characterizing the harm to the health of medium severity of crime victims. In the analyzed period in the Republic of Tatarstan was registered 920 victims of crime who received moderate injury. Among the victims were 40 minors or 4.3% of the total quantity and 270–women, or 29.3%. In the overall structure of recorded victims under-age persons who received moderate injury amounted to 0.41% and 0.31% women. Quantitative indicators characterizing the dynamics of the state of causing moderate bodily harm to victims of crime, as follows: in 2009, was considered and recognized as such by 182 people, in 2010-179, in 20011-178, in 2012-186, in 2013-195 marked increase recorded victims of this category by 6,7%. This trend is reflected in the indicators characterizing juvenile crime victims who received moderate injury. If in 2009 their total number was 5 people, then in 2010 – 7, in 2011- 5, in 20120-13, in 2013- 10. The twofold increase in the number of juvenile victims of crime who have received moderate injury emphasizes the negative trends of crime, but these figures are not critical to assess the state of crime in the Republic of Tatarstan. More clearly the trend of increasing the number of crime victims have received moderate damage to health emphasizes the stable growth of this indicator among women in Republic of Tatarstan. So, in 2009, this category of crime victims was 42 people, in 2010- 54, in 2011- 56, in 2012- 57, in 2013-61. The growth rate of this index, which characterizes the negative social consequences of crime in the Republic of Tatarstan amounted to 31.1%.
Conducted a Victimological a study of quantitative statistical indicator that characterize the general state of modern crime in the Republic of Tatarstan for the period from 2009 to 2013, allows us to make some conclusions. Firstly, the overall drop in crime in the Republic of Tatarstan in the period 2009–2013 resulted reduction of the number of registered and recorded victims of crime, and the decline in crime ahead, slowing sacrifice crime. Secondly, the structure of the sacrifice crime in the Republic of Tatarstan individuals significantly dominated, the share of legal entities in the number of victims of crime more than six times less. Third, there is a positive trend in the structure the sacrifice of crime in the Republic of Tatarstan – reduction of crime victims the most vulnerable social groups with increased criminal victimization – women and children. Fourth, along with positive trends in crime and clearly visible warning signs of Crime-tional distress of the Republic of Tatarstan. Among them attract attention indicators characterizing the growth rate of infant mortality and female criminal behavior and infliction of serious or moderate injury this category of victims with increased criminal victimization.