alexa Vitamin D Deficiency and Autism | OMICS International
ISSN: 2167-1052
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields.
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events with over 600+ Conferences, 1200+ Symposiums and 1200+ Workshops on
Medical, Pharma, Engineering, Science, Technology and Business

Vitamin D Deficiency and Autism

Walaa Fikry Elbossaty*

Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry Division, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, Damietta, Egypt

*Corresponding Author:
Walaa Fikry Elbossaty
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science
Damietta University, Egypt
Tel: +020573761683
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: August 05, 2017; Accepted date: August 24, 2017; Published date: August 31, 2017

Citation: Elbossaty WF (2017) Vitamin D Deficiency and Autism. Adv Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 6:218. doi: 10.4172/2167-1052.1000218

Copyright: © 2017 Elbossaty WF. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety


Autism is neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impaired in social skills, repetitive behaviors, speech and nonverbal communication, in addition to unique strengths and differences. There were different reasons for induced autism which include genetics and environmental factors. Many vitamins may be play important role in induced of autism. The major vitamin is vitamin D. Deficiency of vitamin D influence on the development of autism. The main method in treatment of autism the treatment with vitamin D supplements.


Autism; Vitamin D; Vitamin D deficiency


Definition of autism

Autism disorder is neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired in social skills, repetitive behaviors, speech and nonverbal communication, in addition to unique strengths and differences. There were different reasons of autism which depend on the environmental, genetics influence or combination between them. These reasons were included infection during pregnancy period and consumption of some drugs and alcohols [1].


Prevalence of autism is 1–2 per 1,000, also occurs in 11 per 1,000 children in the United States. Generally, autism effects on 24.8 million people in 2015. In 2012, the NHS assessed that prevalence of autism in group of 18 years adult was 1.1% [2]. In 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention hand out their prevalence report of ADDM autism, which decided that the rising of autism prevalence to 1 in every 68 births in the United States – approximately twofold as compared as the 2004 rate of 1 in 125. The risk of autism correlated with gender which is higher in boys than in girls. The ratio is an average of 4.3:1.1

Even though the researchers do not indicated the relation between pregnancy and autism, the autism risk is associated with age of parent, and with bleeding, diabetes, and use of drugs in pregnancy period [3-6]. Older fathers have bigger risk than older mothers; this may be due to increase in alteration burden in older sperm. Numerous other conditions are common in Autism children.

Causes of autism

The exact cause of ASD is unknown, but it's thought that several complex genetic and environmental factors are involved [7-9]. Genetic mutation play important role in development of autism. Also, environmental factors may be causes autism through gene mutation. Exposure of pregnancy women to heavy metals which present in air pollution may increase the risk of autism [10].

Autism classification

There were five classes from autism, which are characterized by different abnormalities in social [11,12]

Diagnosis of autism

Autism diagnosis occur through Diagnostic Interview for Social and communication Disorders, Autism Diagnostic Interview – Revised, and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule [13].

Vitamin D

Definition of Vitamin D

Vitamin D is one of the most important vitamins is a fat-soluble steroids which is responsible for increase the rate of absorption of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate, and zinc in intestine. Most important vitamin D types are Cholecalciferol (vitD3) and Ergocalciferol (vit D2) [14] (Figure 1).


Figure 1: Vitamin D structure.

Vitamin D is made in the skin from cholesterol through a chemical reaction that is dependent on exposure to the sun. Vitamin D presents in their forms in inactive source; activation process of vitamin D requires some of enzymes which present in liver and kidney In view of that the Dietary Reference of vitamin D Intake assumes no synthesis occurs and all of a person's vitamin D is obtain from food. Vitamin D has a significant role in calcium homeostasis and metabolism. Its discovery was due to effort to find the dietary substance lacking in rickets (the childhood form of osteomalacia) [15].

A diet deficient in vitamin D in conjunction with inadequate sun exposure causes osteomalacia (or rickets when it occurs in children), which is a softening of the bones. In the developed world, this is a rare disease. A review article of 2016 reported that while there is increase rate of diabetes mellitus through vitamin D deficienc [16-18].

Dietary sources of vitamin D

Although vitamin D is not present naturally in most foods, it is commonly added into some manufactured foods, as fruit juices and fruit juice drinks, beverages, cheese and cheese products [19,20]. Value of Vitamin D in foods is reduced by cooking, such as by boiling, frying or baking. Boiled, fried and baked foods retained 69–89% of original vitamin D (Table 1) [21,22].

Vitamin D2 Vitamin D3
Plant-based milks and yogurts Fish liver oils
Mushrooms Salmon
Plants Mackerel
Cooked egg

Table 1: Vitamin D values in food.

Mechanism of vitamin D in autism

Each cell has receptors for vitamin D. These receptors responsible for control gene [23] Oxidative stress may be leads to early cell death. Some research reports indicated that vitamin D reduces oxidative stress. Environmental factors may cause DNA mutations and this increased risk for autism. Vitamin D play important role in protection of DNA from damage, if it occur vitamin D repair it once the damage occur. In addition to Vitamin D may also reduce the risk of autism through its effect on immune system through, increasing T-regulatory cells, Protecting the and by up- regulating glutathione, which also chelates heavy metals [24] (Vitamin D action mechanism Figure 2).


Figure 2: Vitamin D action mechanism.


Vitamin D may play important role in protection from autism risk through inhibit oxidative stress and regulation of immunological process. So it's necessary for pregnant women to take vitamin D supplemental during pregnancy stage to protect their infant from the risk of autism.


Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
Post your comment

Share This Article

Article Usage

  • Total views: 882
  • [From(publication date):
    October-2017 - Sep 26, 2018]
  • Breakdown by view type
  • HTML page views : 798
  • PDF downloads : 84

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2018-19
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

bornova escort

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

© 2008- 2018 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
Leave Your Message 24x7