alexa Water Quality Assessment in Terms of Water Quality Index (WQI) Using GIS in Ballia District, Uttar Pradesh, India

ISSN: 2161-0525

Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology

  • Research Article   
  • J Environ Anal Toxicol 2016, Vol 6(3): 366
  • DOI: 10.4172/2161-0525.1000366

Water Quality Assessment in Terms of Water Quality Index (WQI) Using GIS in Ballia District, Uttar Pradesh, India

Gopal Krishan*, Surjeet Singh, Suman Gurjar, Kumar CP and Ghosh NC
National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee-247 667, Uttarakhand, India
*Corresponding Author: Gopal Krishan, National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee-247 667, Uttarakhand, India, Tel: 91-1332-272108, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Mar 11, 2016 / Accepted Date: Apr 05, 2016 / Published Date: Apr 08, 2016

Abstract

In the present study, water quality of groundwater has been assessed in terms of water quality index (WQI) in Ballia district of Uttar Pradesh. Data of 12 groundwater samples each of hand pump and bore well was taken for computing the Water Quality Index using eleven parameters viz. pH, Total Dissolved Solids, Turbidity, Total Hardness, Arsenic, Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrate, Iron, Sulphate and Dissolved Oxygen. The WQI results show that the overall water quality class is ‘fair’ and water needs treatment

Keywords: Water quality index; Groundwater; Ballia; Uttar Pradesh; Gangetic plains

Introduction

Groundwater is the largest fresh water resource on the mother earth and quality of groundwater is influenced by the natural/geogenic and/ or anthropogenic sources. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality is essential as it becomes extremely difficult to restore the contaminated groundwater. Water Quality Index (WQI) is an easy and important tool to assess spatial and temporal changes in ground water quality and has been used by various researchers [1-11].

In recent years, excessive use of groundwater has led to its depletion and deterioration of quality in Gangetic basin [12-27] and water quality evaluations have been carried out other parts of India as well [28-36].

Ballia district, the eastern most part of Uttar Pradesh and a part of Central Ganga Plains, occupies an irregular wedge shape tract in interfluvial region of rivers Ganga and Ghaghara. The district has geomorphic units flood plain, newer and older alluvial plains and depth to water level is up to 550 m in shallow, intermediate and deep aquifers. Groundwater occurs in unconfined, semi-confined and confined aquifers with the presence of arsenic, fluoride and iron more than the permissible limits [37]. Therefore, there is an urgent need to assess the groundwater quality for drinking purpose. In the present study, groundwater quality is assessed for drinking purpose in terms of WQI in Ballia district, Uttar Pradesh.

Study Area

Ballia district with a total geographical area of 2981 km2, lies between latitude 25°23" N-26°11"N and longitude 83°38"-84°39"E (Figure 1). The district Ballia falls under sub humid climate with the maximum temperature in May and minimum in December. 88% of the average normal annual rainfall (983 mm) occurs in monsoon season. The district is an agriculture dominated area and 82.50% area is irrigated by groundwater. As per the report of CGWB [37], water level varies from 2.42 to 9.90 mbgl in pre-monsoon and from 1.55 to 8.35 mbgl in post monsoon with a fluctuation from 0.85 to 3.65 meters.

environmental-analytical-toxicology-Location-map

Figure 1: Location map of the study area.

Methodology

The Water Quality Index (WQI) was computed using 11 water quality parameters viz. pH, Total Dissolved Solids, Turbidity, Total Hardness, Arsenic, Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrate, Iron, Sulphate and Dissolved Oxygen of 12 groundwater samples of hand pump and bore hole each (Figure 2) given by Srivastava [38]. As reported by Srivastava [38], water samples have been collected from hand pumps and bore wells after cleaning the bottle with 6M HNO3 which is followed by washing with double distilled water. The samples were analysed by standard methodology [39]. The methods reported by Singh et al. [7] have been employed where quality rating scale was used assigning the weight values to the selected parameters (Table 1) and have been classified into 5 categories (Table 2).

environmental-analytical-toxicology-Ballia-District

Figure 2: Map showing sampling locations in Ballia District, Uttar Pradesh.

S No Parameter Weight Factor Standards (BIS-10500) (1991)
1 pH 1 6.5-8.5
2 Total Dissolved Solids (mg/l) 3 500-2000
3 Total Hardness (mg/l) 1 300-600
4 Turbidity 1 <5
5 DO 4 >8
6 Fluoride 3 <1.5
7 Chloride (mg/l) 1 250-1000
8 Sulphate(mg/l) 2 25-1000
9 Nitrate 3 <45
10 Iron 3 <0.3
11 Arsenic 4 <0.05

Table 1: Significance weight and water quality parameters [7,35,44].

Class WQI Value Status of Water
Heavily Polluted 0–24 Unsuitable for All Purposes
Poor 25–49 Special Treatment
Fair 50–74 Needs Treatment (Filtration and Disinfection)
Good 75–94 Acceptable
Excellent 95–100 Pristine Quality

Table 2: WQI and corresponding class and status of water quality [7-11].

Geographic information system (GIS) is most effective tool to provide better information for the consumers, policy makers and this helps for taking quick decision. For representing the spatial distribution of sampling locations, the coordinates have been found using the Google Earth satellite view. The interpolation of the water sample values has been done by Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) interpolation technique in the ArcGIS 9.3 software.

Results and Discussion

The statistical summary of physico-chemical parameters and WQI variation of 12 samples each taken from hand pump and bore well in Ballia district, Uttar Pradesh is given in Table 3. The Hydrogenion concentration (pH) values are one of the important factors of groundwater and in present study, the value of pH is found lower than the desired limit (8.5) prescribed by BIS in all the samples.

Parameters pH Turbidity TU mg/l WQI
DO TDS As Fe F- Cl- NO3- SO4-- Total Hardness
Hand pump (n=12)  
Minimum 7.16 1 12 425 0.06 1.12 1.3 114.0 0.8 12.7 211 66
Maximum 7.94 7 21 2856 0.28 2.96 2.7 535.3 2.8 34.5 960 74
Average 7.45 4 16 1040 0.17 2.09 1.9 258.3 2.0 20.8 578 69
Std. Deviation 0.28 2 3 666 0.06 0.59 0.4 134.2 0.6 6.70 137 3
Bore well (n=12)  
Minimum 6.48 2 15 451 0.07 0.12 1.5 120.0 0.7 10.2 462 62
Maximum 8.02 9 26 1253 0.32 2.15 2.8 245.0 3.9 38.6 2230 79
Average 7.47 5 21 864 0.18 1.04 2.4 175.3 1.9 20.7 1359 67
Std. Deviation 0.45 2 3 289 0.08 0.58 0.4 40.6 1.0 11.6 441 5

Table 3: Physico-chemical parameters and WQI of groundwater samples in Ballia District, Uttar Pradesh

Total dissolved solids (TDS) in all the samples taken from hand pump varies from 425 to 2856 mg/l while in the samples taken from bore well, TDS varies from 451 to 1253 mg/l (Table 3). The higher values of TDS are attributed to application of agricultural fertilizer contributing the higher concentration of ions into the groundwater [40].

Total hardness of water is a measure of dissolved Ca and Mg and is expressed as (CaCO3) [41] and in the samples taken from hand pump it varies from 211 to 960 mg/lin the samples taken from bore well it varies from 462 to 2230 mg/l. Accordingly, the groundwater quality in study area is classified as hard water. The turbidity value varies from 1 to 7 NTU with an average value of 4 and 2 to 9 NTU with an average value of 5 in hand pumps and bore wells water, respectively.

Fluorides concentration in groundwater is found to exceed the permissible limit of 1.5 mg/l in most of the samples and the main sources of fluoride are geogenic/natural like minerals, rocks and sediments. The spatial distribution of fluoride is shown in Figure 3, which indicates fluoride concentration is evenly distributed in whole district. The chloride content in most of the samples taken from hand pump and few samples from bore well have high chloride concentration and some much higher the permissible limit of 200 mg/l. This may be due to its wide distribution in natural environment. The average nitrate value is observed 2.0 mg/l and 1.9 mg/l, in the samples taken from hand pump and bore well, respectively which is well within the permissible limit of 45 mg/l.

environmental-analytical-toxicology-Spatial-variation

Figure 3: Spatial variation of fluoride in groundwater samples (handpump and borewells) of Ballia District, Uttar Pradesh.

The average concentrations of iron is found 2.09 mg/l and 1.04 mg/l, in the samples taken from hand pump and bore well, respectively exceeding the desirable limit of 0.3 mg/l [42]. Excess iron in water is mostly accumulated through the weathering of rocks and industrial effluents discharge. The average concentrations of arsenic found 0.17 mg/l and 0.18 mg/l, in the samples taken from hand pump and bore well, respectively exceeding the desirable limit of 0.05 mg/l. The spatial distribution of arsenics is shown in Figure 4, which indicates arsenic concentration is evenly distributed in the whole district. The higher arsenic contents may be of geogenic origins in underground alluvial formations.

environmental-analytical-toxicology-groundwater-samples

Figure 4: Spatial variation of arsenic in groundwater samples (handpump and borewells) of Ballia District, Uttar Pradesh.

Dissolved oxygen DO reflects the water quality status of physical and biological processes in water and shows the metabolic balance. DO Levels act as an indicator of status of the water body. The DO average value varies from 11.78 to 21.12 mg/Land from 15.42 to 26.18 mg/L in hand pump and bore well water, respectively. According to the data by Srivastava [38], the DO values are surprisingly high and these need further investigation.

The computed WQI values and their spatial distribution for 12 bore wells and hand pumps each in Ballia district, Uttar Pradesh range from 66 to 74 and from 62 to 79, respectively as shown in Figure 5 and can be categorized into “fair” type. The water needs ‘Filtration and disinfection’ treatment. The reason of low values of WQI may be the higher values of TDS, total hardness, As, F-, Cl-, HCO3-, NO3-- and SO4--. Krishan et al. [8] have found 5% groundwater samples qualified in the category of ‘fair’ in Haridwar district of Uttarakhand whereas 21% of groundwater samples were found unsuitable for drinking purposes in West Bokaro coalfield, India [43,44].

environmental-analytical-toxicology-quality-index

Figure 5: Spatial variation of water quality index in groundwater samples (hand pump and bore wells) in Ballia District, Uttar Pradesh.

Conclusion

WQI has been computed based on eleven different quality parameters viz. pH, Total Dissolved Solids, Turbidity, Total Hardness, Arsenic, Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrate, Iron, Sulphate and Dissolved Oxygen to assess the suitability of groundwater for drinking purposes in Ballia district, Uttar Pradesh. The WQI show that overall groundwater samples in Ballia district, UP qualify in the ‘Fair’ category and are not fit as such for drinking. The water needs ‘Filtration and disinfection’ treatment and then can be used for the drinking purpose. The reason of low values of WQI may be the higher values of TDS, Total Hardness, As, F-, Cl-, HCO3-, NO3-- and SO4--. Continuous monitoring of groundwater is required by establishing a planned monitoring network in the study area for regular assessment of the WQI which will be useful in proper management of the water resources.

Acknowledgements

Authors thank Director, National Institute of Hydrology for all necessary support and encouragement.

References

Citation: Krishan G, Singh S, Gurjar G, Kumar CP, Ghosh NC (2016) Water Quality Assessment in Terms of Water Quality Index (WQI) Using GIS in Ballia District, Uttar Pradesh, India. J Environ Anal Toxicol 6: 366. Doi: 10.4172/2161-0525.1000366

Copyright: © 2016 Krishan G, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Review summary

  1. AFOLABI
    Posted on Sep 23 2016 at 12:48 pm
    The article shows the water quality of groundwater that has been assessed in terms of water quality index. The author has done an excellent job and observation showed that the overall water quality class is ‘fair’ and water needs treatment.

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