Badar Alam Iqbal*
Department of Commerce, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (UP), India
Received date: February 01, 2014; Accepted date: February 03, 2014; Published date: May 05, 2015
Citation: Iqbal BA (2014) Why Public Policy Management? Arabian J Bus Manag Review 3: e101.
Copyright: © 2015 Iqbal BA. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Public management is a term which considers that the Governments and non-government organizations world over make use of it in some vital ways. There are well established management techniques and tools that are appropriate for public and private sectors that maximize efficiency and effectiveness two faces of the same coin.
Every person will gain strong problem solving skills namelyquantitative and qualitative which will allow a person to develop effective policies and a person will have opportunities to gain experience in leadership and real-world applications of public affairs management.
Public Policy Management (PPM) is the process of working to formulate and influence public policy from the outside. This is a process mainly unique to democratic types of Governments wherein those in power must answer to a constituency base. Whereas public policy management may not be successful in all cases, those firms and organizations that have a plan are more apt to see positive results for their respective causes.
It is true to say that a great deal of money may be put into public policy management because so much is at stake. Often, non-profit organizations, and even for profit firms researching new products and processes, may depend upon Government grants or other governments funding. If not, these firms always make out efforts to influence regulatory framework so that they could make it easier for them to do business.
It is further true that before reaching to legislators, firms and organizations often take time to come up with a Public Policy Management Strategy (PPMS) that may be the most difficult part of the process. Often firms may even hire consultants to help them devise a strategy to fit with their particular situation.
Teaching and research in respect of public policy management are widely practiced in developed economies. The public manger will have to deal with critical infrastructure that directly affects quality of life. Trust in public managers, and the large sums spent at their behest, makes them subject to many more conflict interest and ethics guidelines in most of the countries world over.
Civil servants, NGO employees, politicians and their advisers all need to have a wide range of skills and knowledge to equip them to meet the constantly changing challenges of public policy management. This also includes the evolving interface between public agencies and the private and voluntary sectors.
Over the past decades, many reforms in government have been aimed at increasing efficiency, effectiveness and value for money with very little focus on the actual policy process and the way it affects the ability of policy makers to meet the needs of constituents in an increasingly complex, uncertain and unpredictable world. However, if this core process were to be modernized, it would yield considerable economic and social benefits, including enhanced productivity, openness, transparency and participation, as well as actionable and interoperable policy intelligence.
Institutions involved in public policy making range from agencies in all branches of Government, the executive, the legislative, and the judiciary to a host of non-governmental institutions, associations, interest groups, political parties, academic bodies and individuals. In the executive branch of Government, the policies are given concrete shape and direction by the Prime Minister and his/her Cabinet. They are assisted in this function by the various Standing Committees of the Cabinet, and the Prime Minister’s Secretariat composed of personal advisers. Although the Prime Minister’s Secretariat does not make any original proposals in policy matters, it exercises a great deal of influence in moulding them through the preparation of briefs and analysis and shifting the information for the decisions of the Prime Minister. The interplay between the Prime Minister and Cabinet colleagues, the use of Committee structure in the Cabinet, and the interaction between the staff of the Cabinet Secretariat, Prime Minister’s Secretariat and the Secretariat of the different ministries determines the final outcomes of public policies through the executive branch of the Government.
Policy makers are actively involved either in making policy or in influencing policy. The policy maker is a person who has the power to influence or determine policies and practices at an international, national, regional or local level. Public policy making is characterized by a large set of actors. Actors can be politicians, civil servants, lobbyists, advisors, domain experts, auditors, etc. They can design policies, codify and formalize policies, and assess or approve policies.
The main process of policy making consists of four phases; initiation, formulation, implementation and evaluation. The process starts by setting an agenda based on an issue or previous decision and ends by handing over the implemented policy to an execution and enforcement layer. It includes identifying the problem, formulating a solution, identifying different alternatives, selecting from those alternatives on the basis of their impact and laying them down in some type of statement.
Formulated policy objectives may be expressed and formulized as policy statements, programs or projects aimed at solving a problem. Policy implementations may be expressed and formulized as laws, procedures, protocols, directives or budgetary actions.
Evaluation and verification are an integral part of the policy making process. Many of the consultation activities are intended not only to obtain political support, but also to obtain feedback on the expected impact and effects.
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