The formal assessment of pain is important to initiate and evaluate the effectiveness of pain treatments. Assessment subjectivity is reduced by using an assessment tool. Two types of pain assessment tools are available, self-report and observational or behavioral for people who cannot self-report. Self-report: Uni-dimensional and multi-dimensional self-report tools are the most reliable measure of pain as long as the person in pain is listened to and believed. According to Hjermstad et al. pain intensity is the most clinically relevant dimension of the pain experience; hence it is the most commonly assessed element of pain using uni-dimensional tools. Pain intensity assessment tools include the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), Verbal Descriptor Scale (VDS), a Numerical Descriptor Scale (NVDS) and the Wong Baker smiley faces, Behavioural pain assessment tools.
A number of behavioural pain assessment tools have been devised for people who cant self-report pain i.e. critical care patients and people with dementia. For example the Critical Care Pain Observation Tool [CPOT], was devised using 105 Intensive Care patients. It consists of four items and scores range from 0-8 A number of behavioural pain assessment tools have been devised for people who cant self-report pain i.e. critical care patients and people with dementia. For example the Critical Care Pain Observation Tool [CPOT], was devised using 105 Intensive Care patients. It consists of four items and scores range from 0-8.
Review articles are the summary of current state of understanding on a particular research topic. They analyze or discuss research previously published by scientist and academicians rather than reporting novel research results.
Review article comes in the form of systematic reviews and literature reviews and are a form of secondary literature. Systematic reviews determine an objective list of criteria, and find all previously published original research papers that meet the criteria. They then compare the results presented in these papers. Literature reviews, by contrast, provide a summary of what the authors believe are the best and most relevant prior publications.
The concept of "review article" is separate from the concept of peer-reviewed literature. It is possible for a review to be peer-reviewed, and it is possible for a review to be non-peer-reviewed.
Last date updated on June, 2014