1,8-cineole: An Underappreciated Anti-inflammatory Therapeutic
Sarah K Brown, William S Garver and Robert A Orlando*
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Robert A Orlando
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
University of New Mexico
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: June 07, 2017; Accepted Date: June 14, 2017; Published Date: June 22, 2017
Citation: Brown SK, Garver WS, Orlando RA (2017) 1,8-cineole: An Underappreciated Anti-inflammatory Therapeutic. J Biomol Res Ther 6:154. doi: 10.4172/2167-7956.1000154
Copyright: © 2017 Brown SK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The inflammatory response is typically initiated by infection or cellular injury, and provides host protection aimed at clearing the initial triggering event, as well as providing long-term protective immunity. When properly functioning, the inflammatory process is a mediator of acute injury to restore tissue health and is characteristically self-limiting once tissue repair and homeostasis have been restored. If tissue health is not restored, such as if the tissue harbors a continuous low grade inflammatory stimulant, then the inflammatory process becomes a chronic response that continuously damages the surrounding tissue in its attempt to provide repair. Left unchecked, long-term inflammation can result in diseases of chronic inflammation, such as autoimmunity or age-related diseases. Choice of current anti-inflammatory therapies is often limited by patient risk-benefit considerations. Traditional approaches to manage chronic inflammation include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or corticosteroids which provide short-term benefits, but are often plagued with significant side effects that preclude their use for long-term therapy. The newest classes of anti-inflammatory therapeutics, biologics, are engineered monoclonal antibodies that bind pro-inflammatory mediators and neutralize their effects by preventing pro-inflammatory signaling.
Unfortunately, biologic therapies are often prohibitively expensive and have serious, sometimes life-threatening side effects. In lieu of biologics or chemically synthesized small molecules, natural products have provided a rich source of small molecule effectors. One particular natural product, 1,8-cineole, also called eucalyptol, is reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and anti-oxidant activity. Several clinical trials have established potent anti-inflammatory activity for 1,8-cineole, which may suggest its use as a primary treatment, or at the very least, an adjunct therapy for current anti-inflammatory agents. We argue that use of 1,8-cineole as an anti-inflammatory agent needs greater study in other diseases with a chronic inflammatory component, including atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and arthritic complications.