alexa A New Era for Immunotherapeutic Approaches in Multiple Sclerosis Treatment
ISSN: 2167-0870

Journal of Clinical Trials
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Commentary

A New Era for Immunotherapeutic Approaches in Multiple Sclerosis Treatment

Maria Elsa Gambuzza1*, Luca Soraci2, Vincenza Sofo2, Silvia Marino3 and Placido Bramanti3
1Ministry of Health, Territorial Office of Messina, Italy
2Department of biomedical, dental, and image morphological and functional Sciences-University of Messina, Italy
3IRCCS Centro Neurolesi "Bonino Pulejo", Messina, Italy
Corresponding Author : Maria Elsa Gambuzza
Ministry of Health, Territorial Office of Messina, Italy
Tel: +39-065994-9384
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: December 23, 2015 Accepted: February 15, 2016 Published: February 22, 2016
Citation: Gambuzza ME, Soraci L, Sofo V, Marino S, Bramanti P (2016) A New Era for Immunotherapeutic Approaches in Multiple Sclerosis Treatment. J Clin Trials 6:253. doi:10.4172/2167-0870.1000253
Copyright: © 2016 Gambuzza ME, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 

Abstract

Recent studies have shown that many pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders, are always the result of innate immune dysregulations. In multiple sclerosis (MS), innate immunity has shown induce proinflammatory responses, mainly mediated by specific innate immune receptors, as well as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Interestingly, whereas activation of TLR-MyD88 dependent signaling pathway induces inflammation and MS progression, TLR3 activation MyD88 independent seems to play a beneficial effect, probably due to its ability to enhance endogenous IFN-β production, that in turn down regulates proinflammatory responses. Consequently, new therapeutic approaches based on TLR up and/or down regulation could offer promising results. In addition to several classes of TLR antagonists represented by different types of antibodies, nanobodies, mimetic molecules and RNAselective interference compounds, TLR3 agonists appear particularly interesting due to their capability of inducing IFN-β production. Among these, Ampligen® shows early promise, since it has shown positive results in several phase III trials for the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), an illness that shows remarkable levels of similarity with MS.

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