alexa A Profile of Sleep Architecture and Sleep Disorders in
ISSN: 2167-0277

Journal of Sleep Disorders & Therapy
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Research Article

A Profile of Sleep Architecture and Sleep Disorders in Adults with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury

Catherine Wiseman-Hakes1,2*, Brian J. Murray3, Tatyana Mollayeva1,2, Judith Gargaro2,4, and Angela Colantonio1,2,5
1Rehabilitation Sciences Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
2Toronto Rehabilitation Institute- University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
3Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
4ABI Behaviour Services, West Park Health Care Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
5Department of Occupational Therapy and Occupational Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Corresponding Author : Catherine Wiseman-Hakes
1Rehabilitation Sciences Institute
University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Tel: 416 451 7167
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: December 03, 2015 Accepted: December 15, 2015 Published: Decemebr 22, 2015
Citation: Wiseman-Hakes C, Murray BJ, Mollayeva T, Gargaro J, Colantonio A (2016) A Profile of Sleep Architecture and Sleep Disorders in Adults with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury. J Sleep Disord Ther 5:224. doi:10.4172/2167-0277.1000224
Copyright: © 2015 Wiseman-Hakes C, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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The primary acceleration-deceleration mechanism of traumatic brain injury (TBI) leaves the brain structures that regulate sleep and wakefulness vulnerable to pathological changes, and there are external secondary factors experienced post-injury that can contribute to the development of difficulties initiating or maintaining sleep, early morning awakening, and/or dissatisfaction with sleep. Patients with TBI are at risk for developing chronic sleep-wake disturbances, and complaints of insomnia and hypersomnia are commonly reported. The objective of this study was to examine sleep architecture and explore the presence and types of sleep disorders in adults with chronic TBI. Method: Participants (N=13, mean time post injury 4.5 years) underwent polysomnography and the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test. Polysomnographic findings were compared to age and sex normative data. Sleep disorders were diagnosed according to the criteria of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 2nd edition. Results: Compared to normative data, 92% had abnormal sleep architecture with increased N1 (p=.002), reductions in REM sleep (p=0.017) and total sleep time, and poor sleep efficiency. All were diagnosed with a treatable sleep disorder according to the ICSD-2. Conclusion: These exploratory findings add to a growing body of evidence that TBI is associated with a high prevalence of sleep disorders which underlie alterations in sleep architecture including increased arousability, greater amounts of transitional sleep stages, and altered REM latency and duration.These results highlight the importance of regular screening and assessment of sleep-wake disorders early in the rehabilitation stage for this population in order to prevent the development of chronic sleep disorders.


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