A Proposal for an Individualized Pharmacogenetic-Guided Warfarin Dosage Regimen for Puerto Rican Patients Commencing Anticoagulation TherapyLuis Ángel Bermúdez Bosch*
Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Luis Ángel Bermúdez Bosch, MSc
Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, Medical Sciences Campus
University of Puerto Rico, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: June 25, 2013; Accepted date: January 15, 2014; Published date: January 25, 2014
Citation: Bermúdez-Bosch LA (2014) A Proposal for an Individualized Pharmacogenetic-Guided Warfarin Dosage Regimen for Puerto Rican Patients Commencing Anticoagulation Therapy. J Pharmacogenomics Pharmacoproteomics T1:001. doi: 10.4172/2153-0645.T-001
Copyright: © 2014 Bermudez-Bosch LA. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Warfarin is the current standard of care in oral anticoagulation therapy. It is commonly prescribed to treat venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, acute myocardial infarction, and to decrease the risk of stroke in atrial fibrillation. Warfarin therapy is challenging because of marked and often unpredictable inter-individual dosing variations that effectively reach and maintain adequate anticoagulation. Several researchers have developed pharmacogenetic-guided maintenance dose algorithms that incorporate genetics and individual patient characteristics. However, there is limited information available concerning dosing during warfarin initiation. This is considered the most clinically challenging therapeutic phase. In such, the risk of recurrent thromboembolism and hemorrhage are elevated. The objective of this retrospective study is to predict the individual initial doses for Puerto Rican patients (n=175) commencing anticoagulation therapy at Veterans Affairs Caribbean Healthcare System (VACHS) using pharmacogenetic/pharmacokinetic-driven model. A pharmacogenetic driven model (R2=0.4809) was developed in Puerto Rican patients and combined with pharmacokinetic formulas that enabled us to predict the individual initial doses for patients (n=121) commencing anticoagulation therapy. WinNonlin® pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic simulations were carried out to determine the predictability of this model. This model demonstrated promising results with few (n=10) simulations outside of their respective therapy range. A customized pharmacogenetic-based warfarin maintenance dose algorithm (R2=0.7659) was developed in a derivation cohort of 131 patients. The predictability of this developed pharmacogenetic algorithm was compared with the International Warfarin Pharmacogenomics Consortium (IWPC) algorithm and it demonstrated superior predictability within our study population.