A Randomised Double-Blinded Dose Response Study of the Fentanyl with Hyperbaric Ropivacaine in Cesarean Section
- *Corresponding Author:
- Pratima Srivastava
Division of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism
CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute Sector 10
Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow-226031, UP, India
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: September 18, 2014; Accepted date: November 10, 2014; Published date: November 14, 2014
Citation: Gupta A, Bogra J, Singh PK, Kushwaha JK, Srivastava P (2014) A Randomised Double-Blinded Dose Response Study of the Fentanyl with Hyperbaric Ropivacaine in Cesarean Section. J Anesth Clin Res 5:467. doi: 10.4172/2155-6148.1000467
Copyright: © 2014 Gupta A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Background: Much research work has been done to know the minimum required concentration of local anaesthetic agents, employing various adjuvants for cesarean section. The present study states that Fentanyl addition to heavy Ropivacaine reduced the dose of later, thereby its side effects related to higher doses in cesarean sections.
Patients: Three groups of thirty parturient each were made randomly. Group I received 15 mg 0.6% Ropivacaine; Group II received 12 mg 0.6% Ropivacaine and 12.5 μg Fentanyl and Group III received 10 mg 0.6% Ropivacaine and 25 μg Fentanyl. Sensory and motor block properties, hemodynamics, intraoperative visceral pain, sedation, shivering, nausea and vomiting, postoperative analgesia; foetal outcomes and side effects were evaluated. ANOVA, chi-square and Mann-Whitney-U tests were used where appropriate (p<0.05).
Results: Intrathecal hyperbaric Ropivacaine and its combination with Fentanyl provided effective sensory and motor block (1.73-2.1 min, p value<0.001), S2 dermatome regression time was longer in Ropivacaine- Fentanyl combination as compared to Ropivacaine alone. Umbilical venous pH and APGAR score was similar (9-9.4) in all groups. Postoperative analgesic effect (monitored as a secondary end-point) was prolonged by addition of Fentanyl; here intraoperative ephedrine requirement was significantly increased in group I (30 mg) as compared to group II (8 mg) and III (6 mg).
Conclusions: S2 dermatome regression time taken as the primary end point was longer in Ropivacaine- Fentanyl combination as compared to Ropivacaine alone. Addition of 12.5 and 25 μg Fentanyl significantly reduced the dose of heavy Ropivacaine resulting in longer, complete and effective analgesia with hemodynamic stability and less side-effects. It is concluded that intrathecal hyperbaric Ropivacaine provides efficient and safe anaesthesia for cesarean section delivery and that this effect is further enhanced by the addition of Fentanyl. Hence the best effective and safe combination, as per this study is 12 mg of Ropivacaine with 12.5 μg Fentanyl (Group II).