A Review on the Formation of Carcinogenic/Mutagenic Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines
- *Corresponding Author:
- Dr. Kizil M
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics
Faculty of Health Sciences
06100 Ankara, Turkey
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: August 25, 2011; Accepted Date: September 28, 2011; Published Date: September 30, 2011
Citation:Kizil M, Oz F, Besler HT (2011) A Review on the Formation of Carcinogenic/Mutagenic Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines. J Food Process Technol 2:120. doi: 10.4172/2157-7110.1000120
Copyright: © 2011 Kizil M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Mutagenic and/or carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) have been found in meat and fish cooked at temperatures over 150ºC. To date, more than 25 HCAs have been isolated and identified in cooked meat and meat products as potent mutagens in the Ames/Salmonella test. HCAs are potent mutagens at ng/g levels in cooked foods and play an important role in the etiology of human cancer. Major precursors of HCAs are creatine and/or creatinine, amino acids and reducing sugars. IQ-type HCAs are formed by heat induced non enzymatic browning known as Maillard reaction which involves creati(ni)ne, amino acid and sugars whereas amino-carbolines are mainly formed by pyrolysis of amino acids and proteins at higher temperatures above 300ºC. Concentrations and variety of HCAs can be dependent on many factors such as precursor level, meat type, cooking method, cooking duration, pH and water activity, heat and mass transfer, lipid level, lipid oxidation and antioxidants. Due to better understanding, formation of HCAs has been studied both in model systems and cooked foods and this review gives an overview of the studies on the formation of carcinogenic and/or mutagenic HCAs.