A Review on the Public Health Importance of Bovine Salmonellosis
College of Veterinary Medicine, Haramaya University, Ethiopia
- *Corresponding Author:
- Jelalu Kemal
College of Veterinary Medicine
Haramaya University, Ethiopia
E-mail: [email protected], [email protected]
Received date: March 29, 2014; Accepted date: May 26, 2014; Published date: May 28, 2014
Citation: Kemal J (2014) A Review on the Public Health Importance of Bovine Salmonellosis. J Veterinar Sci Technol 5:175. doi:10.4172/2157-7579.1000175
Copyright: © 2014 Kemal J. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Salmonellosis is an infectious disease of human and animal caused by organisms of the two species of Salmonella (S. enterica and S. bongori). A Salmonella pathogen are highly adaptive and potentially pathogenic to human and other domestic animals; young, pregnant and lactating animals are the most susceptible and are capable of producing a serious of infections having foodborne zoonosis importance. Enteric disease is the commonest clinical manifestation, but a wide range of clinical signs, which include acute septicaemia, abortion, arthritis and respiratory disease, may be seen.Worldwide there are 16 million annual cases of typhoid fever, 1.3 billion cases of gastroenteritis and 3 million deaths. Poultry, egg, meat, dairy products and fruits and vegetables serve as vehicles of transmission. Most human salmonellosis cases are foodborne, but each year infections are also acquired through direct or indirect animal contact in homes, veterinary clinics, zoological gardens, farm environments or other public, professional or private settings. Salmonella passes through M-cells overlying Peyer’s patches, through dendritic cells or through the epithelial lining in the lower part of small intestine or proximal colon to arrive in the sub epithelial location which is also transported to extra intestinal sites such as the liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. Salmonella pathogens are common in cattle and potentially infect human that come in contact with cattle. Bovine salmonellosis is caused by S. typhimurium and dublin. The disease in cattle is characterized by septicemia, acute or chronic entritis or abortion. Salmonella entrica sub species entrica develop a resistance to multi antibiotics in which results in increasing failure of treatment and severity of infection. Basic hygiene practices and the implementation of scientific based management strategies can efficiently mitigate the risks associated with animal contacts. However, the general public is frequently unaware of the specific disease risks involved and high-risk behaviors are common. The disease can be also controlled by vaccination of cattle.