Activation of Heat Shock Proteins by Nanocurcumin to Prevent Neurodegenerative Diseases
|Panchanan Maiti1* and Jayeeta Manna2|
|1Department of Neurology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA|
|2Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA|
|Corresponding Author :||Panchanan Maiti
Department of Neurology
University of Tennessee Health Science Center
855 Monroe Avenue, Johnson Bldg.
Room 402, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received July 16, 2014; Accepted August 05, 2014; Published August 18, 2014|
|Citation: Mait P, Manna J (2014) Activation of Heat Shock Proteins by Nanocurcumin to Prevent Neurodegenerative Diseases. Brain Disord Ther 3:139. doi:10.4172/2168-975X.1000139|
|Copyright: © 2014 Maiti P, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
Protein misfolding and its progressive accumulation in central nervous system are the common features and the leading cause of several neurodegenerative diseases. Currently no treatment is available to complete removal of these aggregates and rescue neuronal death, synaptic impairment as well as cognitive deficits. Interesting, the cell itself has a fantastic defense mechanism to remove these aggregates. One such crucial mechanism is molecular chaperones such as heat shock proteins. In general, the larger protein aggregates are removed by this system, and degraded through the proteasome or autophagy pathway. Dysfunction or dysregulation of heat shock system has been observed in several neurological diseases, which severely interfere cellular protein clearance mechanism. Therefore, maintenance or balancing of these endogenous protein clearance pathways is a promising approach to remove these protein aggregates. Several small molecules, drugs, and phytochemicals have been studied to promote the activation of this system. Recently, as a potent anti-amyloid polyphenol, curcumin has drawn special attention for the treatment of several brain disorders including several neurodegenerative diseases. It is effective to boost cellular protein clearance system; therefore, it is considered one of the most promising compounds to rectify dysfunction of heat shock system in these disorders. Whereas, because of its low water solubility and fast degradation, the bioavailability of curcumin is very poor. Using nanotechnology, recently several research groups formulated “nanocurcumin” to improve its bioavailability and significantly increases it’s therapeutic efficacy against cancer, but scanty of data are available about it’s role on boosting heat shock system to prevent protein misfolding and neurodegeneration. In this review we will discuss the current knowledge about the importance of nanocurcumin and its pivotal role on activation of heat shock system to combat against neurodegenerative diseases caused by protein misfolding.