Activation of Multiple Molecular Mechanisms for Increasing Apoptosis in Human Glioblastoma T98G Xenograft
- *Corresponding Author:
- Dr. Swapan K. Ray, PhD,
Department of Pathology,
Microbiology, and Immunology,
University of South Carolina School of Medicine,
Building 2, Room C11, 6439
Garners Ferry Road, Columbia, SC 29209, USA,
Tel: +1- 803-733-1593,
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: May 28, 2010; Accepted Date: June 26, 2010; Published Date: June 26, 2010
Citation: Shimul S, Rajiv G (2010) Activation of Multiple Molecular Mechanisms for Increasing Apoptosis in Human Glioblastoma T98G Xenograft. J Cancer Sci Ther 2: 107-113. doi: 10.4172/1948-5956.1000033
Copyright: © 2010 Karmakar S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Glioblastoma is the most malignant brain tumor of astroglial origin. It renders poor response or resistance to existing therapeutics. We used all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and interferon gamma (IFN-?) alone and in combination for controlling human glioblastoma T98G xenograft in nude mice. Histopathological examination showed astrocytic differentiation in ATRA group, some apoptosis in IFN-? group, and occurrence of differentiation and enhancement of apoptosis in ATRA plus IFN-? group. ATRA plus IFN-? induced extrinsic pathway of apoptosis by activation of caspase-8 and cleavage of Bid to tBid and also promoted intrinsic pathway of apoptosis due to down regulation of hTERT, c-IAP2, and survivin and upregulation of Smac/Diablo. Mitochondrial release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) induced caspase-independent pathway and also upregulation of calpain and caspase-dependent pathways ultimately activated caspase-3 for apoptosis. Increased activities of calpain and caspase-3 degraded 270 kDa ?-spectrin at the specific sites to generate 145 kDa spectrin breakdown product (SBDP) and 120 kD SBDP, respectively. In situ TUNEL and double immunofluorescent labelings detected apoptosis with increased expression of calpain, caspase-12, caspase-3, and AIF in tumors after treatment with IFN-? and most effectively with ATRA plus IFN-?. Results indicated that ATRA plus IFN-? activated multiple molecular mechanisms for increasing apoptosis in human glioblastoma in vivo.