Activity of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer on Energy Production in Mammals
- *Corresponding Author:
- Francesco Scaglione
Professor, Department of Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine
University of Milan, Via Vanvitelli 32, 20129- Milan, Italy
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: August 04, 2016; Accepted date: October 14, 2016; Published date: October 19, 2016
Citation: Pannacci M, Lucini V, Dugnani S, Ciracì R, Zangara A, et al. (2016) Activity of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer on Energy Production in Mammals. Biochem Pharmacol (Los Angel) 5:221. doi:10.4172/2167-0501.1000221
Copyright: © 2016 Pannacci M et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Panax ginseng is traditionally used for enhancement of physical capacities, especially in condition of severe fatigue. To evaluate the ability of ginseng in enhancing performance, we focused on the gene expression of AMPK, PGC-1α and SIRT1 genes, involved in energy balance. Gene expression was evaluated in C2C12 myotubes, using P. ginseng C.A. Meyer standardized extract G115, at various concentrations (10-50-100-200 mg/L) for 24, 48, 72 h of incubation. G115 increased significantly expression of AMPK and PGC-1α in dose and time-dependent manner: at the concentration of 10 mg/L there is an increase after 72 h of incubation while at 50 mg/L after 48 h and maintained for 72 h. G115 increased expression of SIRT1 at 10 mg/L after 24 h, while at 50 mg/L after 24 and 48 h. The treatment enhanced cellular ATP levels and O2 consumption only at 50 mg/L. We investigated AMPK, PGC-1α and SIRT1 expression in gastrocnemius muscle during acute and prolonged exercise in mice treated with G115. G115 showed no effect on acute exercise compared to untreated mice, but after prolonged exercise there were significant increases of AMPK and PGC-1α. Expression of SIRT1 was also significant in treated animals’ undergone prolonged exercise. Our data indicate that treatment with G115 increases AMPK and SIRT1 expression that may be related to the induction of PGC-1α expression which improves the energy balance, as demonstrated by increased production of ATP and oxygen consumption. In addition, G115 is able to counteract the inhibition of gene expression of AMPK and PGC-1α due to the prolonged exercise.