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Acute Abdominal Pain Revealing a Primary Plasma Cell Leukemia: A Rare and Aggressive Case of Plasma Cell Dyscrasia | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2157-7099

Journal of Cytology & Histology
Open Access

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Case Report

Acute Abdominal Pain Revealing a Primary Plasma Cell Leukemia: A Rare and Aggressive Case of Plasma Cell Dyscrasia

Luiz Arthur Calheiros Leite1*, Alessandra Gabrielly Magalhães1, Jailson Ferreira Silva1, Alexssando Pedro Silva2, Paloma Lys Medeiros3, Jeymesson Raphael Vieira3, Cintia Machado4, Renata Brandão5, Claudia Wanderley Barros Correia5, Tómas Jelínek6 and Roman Hájek7

1Department of Hematology, University Hospital Gaffrée and Guinle, Federal State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

2Center of Pathology and Diagnostic Medicine, Hospital das Clinicas, Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil

3Department of Histology and Embryology, Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil

4Center of Hematology– HEMOPE, Brazil

5Hematology Service, Hospital das Clínicas, Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil

6Department of Haematooncology, University Hospital Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic

7Faculty of Medicine, University of Ostrava, Czech Republic

*Corresponding Author:
Luiz Arthur Calheiros Leite
Department of Hematology
University Hospital Gaffrée and Guinle
Federal State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Tel: +55 21 2264-4742
Fax: +55 21 2264-5844
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date:Aug 09, 2015 Accepted Date: Aug 19, 2015 Published Date: Aug 21, 2015

Citation: Leite LAC, Magalhães AG, Silva JF, Silva AP, Medeiros PL, et al. (2015) Acute Abdominal Pain Revealing a Primary Plasma Cell Leukemia: A Rare and Aggressive Case of Plasma Cell Dyscrasia. J Cytol Histol 6:364. doi:10.4172/2157-7099.1000364

Copyright: © 2015 Leite LAC, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Primary plasma cell leukemia is a rare and aggressive form of plasma cell neoplasm characterized by the presence of circulating plasma cells in peripheral blood. Here, we report an interesting case of a patient with primary plasma cell leukemia, who was diagnosed during postoperative period after surgery for acute appendicitis. After the appendectomy, the patient developed leukocytosis of 41.2×109/L with a high number of circulating plasma cells (32.5×109/L). The immunophenotypic analysis of leukemic plasma cells indicated the following antigen profile: CD138⁺⁺⁺, CD38⁺⁺⁺, IgMc⁺, CD56¯ and CD20⁻. Electrophoresis showed a monoclonal IgG component of 5810 mg/dL, and diagnosis of primary plasma cell leukemia was established. After the induction chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, bortezomib and dexamethasone, the patient achieved partial response with regression of hepatomegaly and decreased pleural effusion. Nevertheless, the patient died of sepsis. Therapy with proteasome inhibitors and stem cell transplantation may also provide increased survival and improve the prognosis of patients with primary plasma cell leukemia.

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