Acute and Sub-Chronic Oral Toxicity Study of Methanolic Extract of Caesalpinia volkensii (Harms)Michael N Musila1*, David N Ngai1, Jane W Mbiri2, Shardrack M Njagi1, Wilton M Mbinda3 and Mathew P Ngugi1
- *Corresponding Author:
- Michael Ndile Musila
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology
P. O. Box 43844, 00100, Nairobi, Kenya
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: December 12, 2016; Accepted Date: January 5, 2017; Published Date: January 12, 2017
Citation: Musila MN, Ngai DN, Mbiri JW, Njagi SM, Mbinda WM, et al. (2017) Acute and Sub-Chronic Oral Toxicity Study of Methanolic Extract of Caesalpinia volkensii (Harms). J Drug Metab Toxicol 8:222. doi: 10.4172/2157-7609.1000222
Copyright: © 2017 Musila MN, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Medicinal plant Caesalpinia volkensii is used to treat Malaria, conjunctivitis, retinoblastoma, and eyelid swelling as well as gonorrhoea and bilharzia. Animal toxicity information on this plant is limited. This medicinal plant was collected in Embu County in Kenya to evaluate its Acute and sub-chronic toxicity using Wistar rats. The rats were orally administered with different doses of the plants extracts. They were weighed on first day and after every 7 days during treatment with the extract. Signs of toxicity were also observed. After 28 days, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples taken for full hemogram, renal and liver function tests. Weight of internal organs was also recorded. Data was analysed using Minitab statistical software version 17. In acute toxicity studies, C. volkensii extracts did not result to death at extract dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. In sub-chronic toxicity studies, there was no significance difference in body weight and organ weight among the groups treated with the plant extract (p>0.05). Treatment with extract dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight resulted in significant increase in total bilirubin and aspartate aminotransferase (PÃÂ0.05). In addition, 100 mg/kg body weight resulted in significant decrease in haemoglobin and haematocrit. Qualitative phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of various phytochemicals which have the ability to protect erythrocytes from oxidative damage as well as erythropoietin stimulatory activities. It was therefore concluded that methanolic leaf extract of C. volkensii is safe for acute oral administration. However, care should be exercised in sub-chronic exposure at 1000 mg/kg body weight and above to avoid liver injury.