alexa Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy for the Success of Emerging Interventions to Prevent HIV Transmission: A Wake up Call
ISSN 2155-6113

Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Open Access

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Review Article

Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy for the Success of Emerging Interventions to Prevent HIV Transmission: A Wake up Call

Jean B Nachega1,2*, Olalekan A Uthman3, Edward J Mills4, and Thomas C Quinn5,6

1Johns Hopkins University, Departments of International Health and Epidemiology, Baltimore, MD, USA

2Stellenbosch University, Department of Medicine and Centre for Infectious Diseases, Cape Town, South Africa

3Stellenbosch University, Center for Evidence-Based Health Care, Cape Town, South Africa

4University of Ottawa, Department of Global Health, Ontario, Canada

5Johns Hopkins University, Center for Global Health, Baltimore, MD, USA

6Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA

*Corresponding Author:
Jean B Nachega
Johns Hopkins University, Department of International Health
Global Disease Epidemiology Program, 615N Wolfe Street
W5031, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
Tel: +4109552378
Fax: +14105026733
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: June 12, 2012; Accepted Date: October 18, 2012; Published Date: October 22, 2012

Citation: Nachega JB, Uthman OA, Mills EJ, Quinn TC (2012) Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy for the Success of Emerging Interventions to Prevent HIV Transmission: A Wake up Call. J AIDS Clinic Res S4:007. doi:10.4172/2155-6113.S4-007

Copyright: © 2012 Nachega JB, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Despite recent successes in several HIV prevention trials, the epidemic continues to increase in many countries. The most successful biomedical interventions to prevent HIV have been the use of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) to Prevent Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT), and sexual transmission via microbicides, PreExposure Prophylaxis (PrEP), and treatment of the infected person within discordant couples. In addition medical male circumcision has also been shown to be highly effective in prevention of HIV acquisition. However, emerging data demonstrate that adherence to several of these prevention interventions is critical. ART adherence during and after pregnancy has been shown to be significantly below that recommended for adequate virologic suppression, particularly during the postpartum period. Five recent PrEP trials also demonstrate that the success of PrEP as a public health intervention will necessitate monitoring ART adherence and will include additional interventions to improve or maintain adherence to optimal levels. New successes in HIV prevention research have been tempered by suboptimal adherence. There is a critical need to define practical and effective adherence monitoring strategies as well as controlled trials of adherence interventions in the era of PrEP, Treatment as Prevention (TasP), and PMTCT to maximize their benefit.

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