Adipose Tissue: Autologous Filler and Multipotent Stem Cell Source
Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, Burn Center, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstr 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany
- *Corresponding Author:
- Ziyad Alharbi, M.D
Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery – Burn Center
Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University
Pauwelsstr 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: November 11, 2012; Accepted Date: November 20, 2012; Published Date: November 22, 2012
Citation: Alharbi Z (2012) Adipose Tissue: Autologous Filler and Multipotent Stem Cell Source. Anaplastology 1:e107. doi:10.4172/2161-1173.1000e107
Copyright: © 2012 Alharbi Z. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Autologous fat grafting is commonly used as a filler material to correct soft tissue defects of various sizes. Its applications range from reconstructive treatment as well as for cosmetic enhancements, such as breast augmentation, hand and face rejuvenation. Recently, deep investigations were just concentrating on the biological and physiological aspect of fat tissue which has driven the line from being just an autologous material for filling to a multipotent stem cell source for multiple regenerative purposes. After their isolation from harvested fat, adipose derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) or multipotent stromal-derived cells obtained from Stromal Vascular Fraction (SVF), can give wide possibilities in regenerative medicine approach. They can differentiate not only to adipogenic lineage but also to osteogenic, chondrogenic, myogenic and neurogenic lineage in vitro . An attractive advantage of these adult stem cells is that fat graft provides an easily obtainable source of ASCs. Furthermore, harvested fat graft contains significant quantities of growth factors leading to an interesting interaction that can result in better healing and angeogenesis process. Apart from all proven basic scientific evidence, we are at the beginning of a new era of stem cell therapy. Nevertheless, their viability after isolation should be deeply identified as many gaps exist in terms of isolation process with specific markers, proliferation and differentiation protocols, delivery systems, culturing process and therapeutic applications of stromal vascular fraction based cells or ASCs. Further in vitro and in vivo investigation should enhance our knowledge toward ASCs and their interactions with other cells, autologous materials, growth factors, cytokines, and tissue engineered products especially during tissue repair and regeneration.