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ISSN: 2155-9600

Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences
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Review Article

Adipose Tissue Hypoxia: Effects on Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity

Emily A Lounsbury1, Feng-Qi Zhao2and Karen M Lounsbury1*

1Department of Pharmacology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA

2Department Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA

*Corresponding Author:
Karen M. Lounsbury
Professor of Pharmacology, 89 Beaumont Avenue
University of Vermont, Burlington
VT 05405, USA
Tel: 8026561319
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: February 27, 2016 Accepted date: March 01, 2016 Published date: March 10, 2016

Citation:Lounsbury EA, Zhao FQ, Lounsbury KM (2016) Adipose Tissue Hypoxia: Effects on Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity. J Nutr Food Sci 6:488. doi: 10.4172/2155-9600.1000488

Copyright: © 2016 Lounsbury EA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

Abstract

Obesity is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. These risks have been correlated with a chronic inflammatory response of the adipose tissue that affects glucose and lipid metabolism. Hypoxia, stemming from inadequate adipose tissue blood flow in obesity, has been shown to be an important contributor to this inflammatory response. The response to hypoxia includes changes in gene expression that affect glucose uptake, glycolysis, lipid metabolism, inflammation, and angiogenesis. This review describes the effects of obesity on chronic and intermittent hypoxia in white adipose tissue and highlights the resulting effects on gene expression and cell metabolism that can affect the onset of systemic insulin resistance and the development of chronic metabolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.

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