alexa Adverse Reactions Associated with Antiretroviral Regimens in Adult Patients of a University Teaching Hospital HIV Program in Zaria, Northern Nigeria: An Observational Cohort Study
ISSN: 1948-5964

Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
Open Access

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Research Article

Adverse Reactions Associated with Antiretroviral Regimens in Adult Patients of a University Teaching Hospital HIV Program in Zaria, Northern Nigeria: An Observational Cohort Study

Obiako O Reginald1,4*, Muktar M Haruna2,4, Garko B Sani1,4, Tobi-Ajayi Eric1,4, Olayinka T Adebola3,4, Iyanda Mathew4, Irohibe Chigozie4, Umar Bilkisu5 and Abdu-AguyeIbrahim1

1Department of Medicine, Clinical Pharmacology unit, Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria

2Hematology & Blood Transfusion, Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria

3Medical microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria

4APIN/HARVARDPEPFAR HIV Center, Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria

5Pharmacy, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH) Shika Zaria, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author:
Obiako O Reginald
Department of Medicine
Clinical Pharmacology unit
Ahmadu Bello University
Zaria, Nigeria
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: November 16, 2011; Accepted Date: January 12, 2012; Published Date: January 14, 2012

Citation: Obiako OR, Muktar HM, Garko SB, Ajayi-Tobi E, Olayinka AT, et al. (2012) Adverse Reactions Associated with Antiretroviral Regimens in Adult Patients of a University Teaching Hospital HIV Program in Zaria, Northern Nigeria: An Observational Cohort Study. J Antivir Antiretrovir 4: 006-013. doi:10.4172/ jaa.1000039

Copyright: © 2012 Obiako OR, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has reduced the morbidity associated with HIV infection, and prolonged the lifespan of HIV/AIDS patients, but reports of adverse reactions associated with the antiretroviral drugs exist in the literature. The aim of this research was to determine the frequency and pattern of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in HAART-experienced patients in our facility from January 2000 to December 2009.
Method: Patients on HAART who had a defined temporal relationship between an adverse or noxious reaction and the administration of the drugs at doses normally used in man for the treatment of HIV disease were studied. Patients who developed adverse reactions to non- antiretroviral drugs were excluded.
Result: of 3641 patients, 380 (10.4%) comprising 289 females (76.1 %) and 91 males (23.9%) of respective mean ages, 35.1 ± 7.4 and 43.2 ± 5.9 years, and respective median CD4+ cell counts, 256/ μL and 124/ μL, had various forms of ADRs. Zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine (43.2%), stavudine/lamivudine/nevirapine (26.3%), zidovudine/lamivudine+efavirenz (12.4%), truvada+ nevirapine (9.5%), zidovudine + truvada + ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (8.2%) and truvada/efavirenz (0.5%) were responsible. Mean onset of ADR was 34 days, and there was a female predisposition. The common ADRs were: nausea/hypersalivation/ vomiting (124, 34%), skin rash (100, 26.3%), Steven-Johnson syndrome (27, 7.1%) and anemia (27, 7.1%). Significant risk factors were: baseline CD4+ cell counts > 250/μL, on –therapy CD4+ cell counts > 250/μL, female gender, and type of regimen.
Conclusion: Current antiretroviral regimens are associated with various forms of ADRs, thus the need to strengthen pharmacovigilance and proper education of patients on the side effects and possible adverse reactions of ARV regimens.


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