Aflatoxins in Walnut (Juglans regia L.), Pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch) and Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Nuts of Mexico
- *Corresponding Author:
- Magda Carvajal-Moreno
Laboratorio de Micotoxinas C-119
Departamento de Botánica
Instituto de Biología
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM)
Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán 04510, México
Tel: +(5255) 5622 9138
Fax: +(5255) 5550 1760
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: December 05, 2014; Accepted February 02, 2015; Published Date:February 06, 2015
Citation: González JA, Moreno MC, Callejas FR, Velasco SR (2015) Aflatoxins in Walnut (Juglans regia L.), Pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch) and Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Nuts of Mexico. Pharm Anal Acta 6:338. doi: 10.4172/2153-2435.1000338
Copyright: © 2015 González JA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus molds, in oilseeds. Objective: To identify and quantify AF (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) in walnuts, pecans and cashews consumed in Mexico using a validated method. Methods: The nut sampling was conducted in the three main markets of the 16 boroughs of Mexico City. The samples were homogenized, the extraction method was validated, and the concentrations of the 4 AF were determined by immunoaffinity columns. The identification and quantification of the AF was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. A statistical analysis included the Wilcoxon/Kruskal-Wallis test to compare the variation of the origin of samples, types of AF and nut. Results: The recovery percentages of the AF ranged from 75% to 95%. The limits of detection (LOD) of the AF (ng/g), based on the calibration curves, were: 0.1 (AFB1), 0.01 (AFB2), 0.01 (AFG1) and 0.05 (AFG2). Of the 50 samples analyzed, 22% were contaminated with AFB1, and 100% were contaminated with AFt. The average concentrations of AF in the walnut were 0.05 ng/g of AFB1 and 2.10 ng/g of AFt. For the pecan, the concentrations were 0.09 ng/g of AFB1 and 0.44 ng/g AFt, and for the cashew, 0.02 ng/g of AFB1 and 1.36 ng/g AFt. The walnut was the most significantly (p<0.05) contaminated by AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 and AFt, and the most contaminated boroughs with AFB1 were Tlalpan (0.23 ng/g) and Coyoacan (0.26 ng/g). For the pecan and cashew, no significant difference was found between the boroughs in AFB1 and AFt contamination. Conclusion: Aflatoxins are potent mutagens and proven carcinogens, Type I for humans that should be prevented to warranty the quality of oilseeds, nuts are a source of carcinogen ingestion and their consumption can be a risk to human health.