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Ameliorating Effects of Vitamin E and Selenium on Immunological Alterations Induced by Imidacloprid Chronic Toxicity in Chickens | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2161-0525

Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
Open Access

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Research Article

Ameliorating Effects of Vitamin E and Selenium on Immunological Alterations Induced by Imidacloprid Chronic Toxicity in Chickens

Abdulwahab M. Kammon1,2*, Rajinder S. Brar2, Harmanjit S. Banga1 and Sandeep Sodhi1
1Department of Poultry and Fish Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Tripoli University, P.O. Box 13662, Tripoli-Libya
2Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Science, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141004 (PB), India
Corresponding Author : Abdulwahab M. Kammon
Department of Poultry and Fish Diseases
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Tripoli University
P.O. Box 13662, Tripoli-Libya
E-mail: [email protected]
Received June 28, 2012; Accepted August 28, 2012; Published August 31, 2012
Citation: Kammon AM, Brar RS, Banga HS, Sodhi S (2012) Ameliorating Effects of Vitamin E and Selenium on Immunological Alterations Induced by Imidacloprid Chronic Toxicity in Chickens. J Environ Anal Toxicol S4:007. doi: 10.4172/2161-0525.S4-007
Copyright: © 2012 Kammon AM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


The purpose of the current study was to investigate the immunological impacts of chronic imidacloprid insecticide toxicity in broiler chickens and the protective effects of vitamin E and selenium. Broiler chicks (n=90) aged day old were randomly segregated into three groups of 30 chicks each and were kept in separate pens. Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine was given on day 7 and 28 of age. On day 8, chicks in group I were administered 5 mg/kg bw (1/20 LD50) imidacloprid orally. Chicks in group II were given imidacloprid 5 mg/kg bw orally plus a mixture of vitamin E and selenium ≅ 200 mg/kg diet, while group III was given distilled water (DW) orally and served as a control. The treatments were given daily based on weekly body weight till day 45. Antibody titration, serum total immunoglobulins, circulating immune complexes, cell-mediated immunity and histopathology of bursa of Fabricius and spleen were examined. Imidacloprid produced significant decline in the titer of antibodies against ND vaccine, total immunoglobulins and circulating immune complexes in imidacloprid treated group on day 45 as compared to control group. There were no significant changes in the skin thickness between treated chickens and chickens of control group. Histopathology of the bursa of Fabricius revealed edema, lymphocytic depletion in the medulla and cortex and mild interfollicular fibrosis in imidacloprid treated group. The spleen showed mild haemorrhages and lymphocytic depletion. Supplementation of vitamin E and selenium resulted in marked improvements in humoral immunity and pathology of lymphoid organs. It is concluded that imidacloprid insecticide has immunological deleterious effects in chickens targeting the humoral immune responses and vitamin E and selenium supplementation decreased the ill effects of imidacloprid.


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