alexa An Approach on Environmental Sanitation Situation and Toilets Septic Tank Design in Urban Nigeria: A Case Study of Calabar South
E-ISSN: 2252-5211

International Journal of Waste Resources
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Research Article

An Approach on Environmental Sanitation Situation and Toilets Septic Tank Design in Urban Nigeria: A Case Study of Calabar South

Odey Emmanuel Alepu1*, Zifu Li1, Harrison Odion Ikhumhen1, Loissi Kalakodio1, Egor Ophine Enang2 and Giwa Segun Abdulmoseen3

1School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Resource-Oriented Treatment of Industrial Pollutants, University of Science and Technology Beijing Xueyuan 30, Beijing 100083, PR China.

2Department of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Calabar, Nigeria.

3State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P.R. China.

*Corresponding Author:
Odey Emmanuel Alepu
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Beijing Key Laboratory of Resource-Oriented Treatment of Industrial Pollutants
University of Science and Technology Beijing Xueyuan 30
Beijing 100083, PR China
Tel: +8615652933203
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: June 18, 2016; Accepted Date: July 05, 2016; Published Date: July 12, 2016

Citation: Alepu OE, Li Z, Ikhumhen HO, Kalakodio L, Enang EO, et al. (2016) An Approach on Environmental Sanitation Situation and Toilets Septic Tank Design in Urban Nigeria: A Case Study of Calabar South. Int J Waste Resour 6:232. doi:10.4172/2252-5211.1000232

Copyright: © 2016 Alepu OE, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

 

Abstract

Anaerobic digestion of sewage concentrates represents a very suitable means of generating bioenergy while reducing a huge amount of waste to disposal. Effective biogas production from sewage sludge can be achieved by optimizing operational conditions. In this study, the research was designed to compare the biogas production efficiency from sewage sludge recovered from coagulation and absorption process with sludge recovered from bioflocculation, centrifuged and chemical coagulation (Al2(SO4)3+CMC) processes through biomethane potential experiment (BMP). From the results obtained, the maximum methane production rate of 56.85 mLCH4/gCOD was achieved from concentrates collected during coagulation and absorption treatment process without solid retention time (SRT), concentrates collected during 0.5 d SRT had maximum methane production rate of 110.88 mLCH4/gCOD, methane production rate of 154.28 mLCH4/gCOD was achieved from 2 d SRT concentrate. The Al2(SO4)3+CMC treated concentrate had methane yield of 143 mLCH4/gCOD while bioflocculation concentrate had methane yield of 139 mL/gCOD and centrifuged concentrate had the yield of 124 mL/gCOD within the period of 22 to 29 days. The overall result showed that concentrates recovered from coagulation, adsorption and Al2(SO4)3+CMC processes produced the highest methane with better efficiency and recorded the most stable performance throughout the period of the experiment and this encouraged the future use in anaerobic digestion for large scale methane production.

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