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ISSN: 2329-9517

Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
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Review Article

An Insight into Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Diseases

Rakhshinda Zafar*
117 country club lane, Kittanning PA 16201, USA
Corresponding Author : Rakhshinda Zafar
117 country club lane, Kittanning PA 16201, USA
Tel: 724-525-5981
E-mail: [email protected]
Received March 31, 2015; Accepted April 24, 2015; Published April 27, 2015
Citation: Zafar R (2015) An Insight into Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Diseases. J Cardiovasc Dis Diagn 3:197. doi: 10.4172/2329-9517.1000197
Copyright: © 2015 Zafar R. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

Based on my clinical experience and knowledge gained through extensive research in this area, I have come up with a hypothesis which sheds more light in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Atherosclerosis is implicated as playing the key role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases which involves large and medium sized arteries. There is now evidence that atherosclerosis is an immuno- inflammatory process. My hypothesis is that chronic psychosocial stress is the main trigger for the systemic inflammation which results by activation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axis. This stress response sets into motion innate immune response, initiating a cascade of events which include: release of neuro-endocrine transmitters, endothelial dysfunction, increased permeability of micro vascular circulation and increased delivery of free fatty acids in circulation among others. Liver responds by increased low density lipoproteins production which continuously enter the arteries, excess LDL is transformed into oxidized low density lipoproteins (ox LDL). ox LDL goes through pattern recognition and is recognized as antigen. Adaptive immunity is activated. ox LDL is pro oxidant, it results in inflammation, reactive oxygen species are released causing oxidative stress. This causes atherosclerosis in large and medium sized arteries and tissue damage in organs sub served by micro vasculature. Hence the process being systemic inflammation is not limited to large and medium sized arteries but is global in reach involving the entire vasculature. This article will review stress and pathophysiology of stress, pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases which includes pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and Inflammation in atherosclerosis. It discusses microcirculation, and goes over disorders involving microcirculation. Oxidative stress is reviewed followed by conclusion.

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