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ISSN 2155-6113

Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Open Access

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  • Review Article   
  • J AIDS Clin Res 2018, Vol 9(3): 762
  • DOI: 10.4172/2155-6113.1000762

An Overview of Enzyme Immunoassay: The Test Generation Assay in HIV/AIDS Testing

Sushanta Kumar Barik1*, Keshar Kunja Mohanty1, Deepa Bisht1, Beenu Joshi1, Srikanta Jena3 and Srikanth Prasad Tripathy2
1National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases, Indian Council of Medical Research, , Taj-Ganj, Agra, Uttar-Pradesh, India
2National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, Indian Council of Medical Research, , Chetpet, Chennai, Uttar-Pradesh, India
3Ravenshaw University, Cuttack, Odisha, India
*Corresponding Author : Sushanta Kumar Barik, National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases, Taj-Ganj, Agra-282001, India, Tel: +919411651219, Email: [email protected]

Received Date: Feb 12, 2018 / Accepted Date: Mar 19, 2018 / Published Date: Mar 26, 2018

Abstract

In Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) routine surveillance system, it is required to identify the persons infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) recently or showing the clinical stages of AIDS. The sensitive and specific of the assay is essential to detect the HIV infections in early period. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) screening assay is a type of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) has gone through improvement in several generations effectively narrow the window period. The HIV specific antibodies, viral antigens are produced up to detectable level. The time is variable in different individuals to produce the HIV antibodies in the presence of the host’s immune pressure. This assay was developed from first generation to fifth generation based on its sensitivity and specificity. Due to the false positive reactivity, the accurate sensitive assay is required in field validations and routine testing of HIV infected samples. This EIA is generally used as a screening assay for blood donors and individuals those are at a risk in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndromes (AIDS). At present, the several types of EIA are the most widely used in serological test for HIV antibodies detection.

Keywords: Human immunodeficiency virus; Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, Enzyme immunoassay; Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; First generation enzyme immunoassay; Second generation enzyme immunoassay; Third generation enzyme immunoassay; Fourth generation enzyme immunoassay; Fifth generation enzyme immunoassay

Citation: Barik SK, Mohanty KK, Bisht D, Joshi B, Jena S, et al. (2018) An Overview of Enzyme Immunoassay: The Test Generation Assay in HIV/AIDS Testing. J AIDS Clin Res 9: 762. Doi: 10.4172/2155-6113.1000762

Copyright: © 2018 Barik SK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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