Introduction: Clinical dentistry is a complex area for education. This is because the development of clinical competence
requires the assimilation of knowledge combined with the acquisition of clinical skills and problem-solving ability. In
recent years, a variety of computer-based modalitiesÂ—including intelligent tutoring systems, medical simulation, and
virtual reality techniques and the development of Web 2.0 collaborative authoring and social networking toolsÂ—has
become available. Aims: The aims of this paper are to provide an overview of the use of one of these modalitiesÂ—virtual
and augmented reality systemsÂ—in dental education and to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of these systems.
Methods: A literature review was performed, using the search terms Â“virtual realityÂ” and Â“dental educationÂ”. Secondary
literature searching was then performed. Results: The review suggested that the use of virtual and augmented reality
technologies offers the advantages of the reinforcement of theoretical dental knowledge, correct use of dental instruments,
ergonomic positioning, studentsÂ’ self-evaluation, faster acquisition of skills and positive student perception. In
general, any disadvantages arise because most of the dental simulators that use virtual and augmented reality are in an
early/experimental stage. Conclusions: It can be concluded that virtual and augmented reality systems will play an
increasing role in dental education. These technologies are likely to change clinical training and encourage the use of
reflective forms of assessment, which involve students in a self-assessment process to identify individual learning needs
and self-directed learning. These innovations promise not only lower costs of the educational process, but also an
increase in quality by providing a new set of pedagogical tools for dental schools.