Analysis of Anti-desmoglein 1 Autoantibodies in 68 Healthy Mother/Neonate Pairs from a Highly Endemic Region of Fogo Selvagem in Brazil
Julio Hilario-Vargas1, Irineu B Vitorio2, Christopher Stamey3, Donna A Culton3, Phillip Prisayanh3, Evandro A Rivitti4, Valeria Aoki4, Gunter Hans Filho5, Vandir dos Santos5, Bahjat Qaqish6 and Luis A Diaz3*
- *Corresponding Author:
- Luis A Diaz
Department of Dermatology, CB# 7287
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: December 17, 2013; Accepted date: February 17, 2014; Published date: February 24, 2014
Citation: Hilario-Vargas J, Vitorio IB, Stamey C, Culton DA, Prisayanh P, et al. (2014) Analysis of Anti-desmoglein 1 Autoantibodies in 68 Healthy Mother/Neonate Pairs from a Highly Endemic Region of Fogo Selvagem in Brazil. J Clin Exp Dermatol Res 5:209. doi: 10.4172/2155-9554.1000209
Copyright: © 2014 Hilario-Vargas J, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Objectives: Fogo Selvagem (FS) in Limao Verde (LV), Brazil shows clinical and histological features of pemphigus foliaceus (PF) and shares pathogenic IgG4 anti-desmoglein 1 (Dsg1) autoantibodies. Previously, our group reported that mothers with active FS deliver babies with normal skin and low/negative titers of IgG4 autoantibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. It was postulated that maternal pathogenic IgG4 autoantibodies do not cross the placenta due to differential receptor mediated transplacental passage of IgG subclasses. It was also thought that placental Dsg1 may immunoadsorb pathogenic autoantibodies from the mother; hence pathogenic IgG4 autoantibodies do not reach the baby.
In this study we use a Dsg1-specific ELISA to test anti-Dsg1 autoantibodies of the IgM, IgG and the IgG subclasses in the sera of 68 pairs of normal mothers and their neonates living in a highly endemic area of FS. Determination of these baseline anti-Dsg1 autoantibodies will allow us to follow and predict in this and other cohorts the appearance of preclinical serological markers of FS.
Methods: The sera of mothers and neonates living in the endemic region were tested by ELISA for IgM, IgG and IgG subclasses using recombinant Dsg1 and anti-IgG subclass-specific monoclonal antibodies. Results: The index values of anti-Dsg1 IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 are similar in mothers and neonates (all p>0.18), while the index values of IgM, total IgG and IgG4 are higher in mothers (all p<0.001).
Conclusions: Narrowing the IgM, IgG and IgG subclasses of mothers and neonates to autoantibodies against Dsg1, we found, as expected, that IgM remains only in maternal circulation. In three mothers and two neonates we detected IgG4 anti-Dsg1 autoantibodies above the normal range. The remaining IgG subclasses show low values. The results of the neonatal sera will serve as a baseline for ongoing seroepidemiological studies of children and adults in the endemic regions of FS.