alexa Angiogenic Factors and Cytokines in Diabetic Retinopathy
ISSN: 2155-9899

Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
Open Access

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Review Article

Angiogenic Factors and Cytokines in Diabetic Retinopathy

Steven F. Abcouwer*
Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan Medical School, Kellogg Eye Center, 1000 Wall Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
Corresponding Author : Steven F. Abcouwer, Ph.D
Associate Professor
Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences
University of Michigan Medical School
Kellogg Eye Center, 1000 Wall Street
Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
Tel: 734-232-8227
E-mail: [email protected]
Received February 08, 2013; Accepted March 13, 2013; Published March 20, 2013
Citation: Abcouwer SF (2013) Angiogenic Factors and Cytokines in Diabetic Retinopathy. J Clin Cell Immunol S1:011. doi:10.4172/2155-9899.S1-011
Copyright: © 2013 Abcouwer SF. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a sight-threatening complication of both type-1 and type-2 diabetes. The recent success of treatments inhibiting the function of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) demonstrates that specific targeting of a growth factor responsible for vascular permeability and growth is an effective means of treating DR-associated vascular dysfunction, edema and angiogenesis. This has stimulated research of alternative therapeutic targets involved in the control of retinal vascular function. However, additional treatment options and preventative measures are still needed and these require a greater understanding of the pathological mechanisms leading to the disturbance of retinal tissue homeostasis in DR. Although severe DR can be treated as a vascular disease, abundant data suggests that inflammation is also occurring in the diabetic retina.Thus, anti-inflammatory therapies may also be useful for treatment and prevention of DR. Herein, the evidence for altered expression of angiogenic factors and cytokines in DR is reviewed and possible mechanisms by which the expression of VEGF and cytokines may be increased in the diabetic retina are examined. In addition, the potential role for microglial activation in diabetic retinal neuroinflammation is explored.

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