Angiotensin Receptors: Structure, Function, Signaling and Clinical ApplicationsKhuraijam Dhanachandra Singh and Sadashiva S Karnik*
Department of Molecular Cardiology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Sadashiva S Karnik
Department of Molecular Cardiology
Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic
9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: February 29, 2016 Accepted date: April 2, 2016 Published date: April 8, 2016
Citation: Singh KD, Karnik SS (2016) Angiotensin Receptors: Structure, Function, Signaling and Clinical Applications. J Cell Signal 1:111. doi:10.4172/jcs.1000111
Copyright: © 2016 Singh KD, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Angiotensinogen – a serpin family protein predominantly produced by the liver is systematically processed by proteases of the Renin Angiotensin system (RAS) generating hormone peptides. Specific cell surface receptors for at least three distinct angiotensin peptides produce distinct cellular signals that regulate system-wide physiological response to RAS. Two well characterized receptors are angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1 receptor) and type 2 receptor (AT2 receptor).They respond to the octapeptide hormone angiotensin II. The oncogene product MAS is a putative receptor for Ang (1-7). While these are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), the in vivo angiotensin IV binding sites may be type 2 trans-membrane proteins. These four receptors together regulate cardiovascular, hemodynamic, neurological, renal, and endothelial functions; as well as cell proliferation, survival, matrix-cell interactions and inflammation. Angiotensin receptors are important therapeutic targets for several diseases. Thus, researchers and pharmaceutical companies are focusing on drugs targeting AT1 receptor than AT2 receptor, MAS and AngIV binding sites. AT1 receptor blockers are the cornerstone of current treatment for hypertension, heart failure, renal failure and many types of vascular diseases including atherosclerosis, aortic aneurism and Marfan syndrome.