Antagonism of Trichoderma spp. against Macrophomina phaseolina: Evaluation of Coiling and Cell Wall Degrading Enzymatic Activities
Gajera HP*, Bambharolia RP, Patel SV, Khatrani TJ and Goalkiya BA
Department of Biotechnology, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh-362 001, Gujarat, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Gajera HP
Department of Biotechnology
College of Agriculture
Junagadh Agricultural University
Junagadh-362 001, Gujarat, India
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: October 23, 2012; Accepted date: November 27, 2012; Published date: December 01, 2012
Citation: Gajera HP, Bambharolia RP, Patel SV, Khatrani TJ, Goalkiya BA (2012) Antagonism of Trichoderma spp. against Macrophomina phaseolina: Evaluation of Coiling and Cell Wall Degrading Enzymatic Activities. J Plant Pathol Microb 3:149. doi:10.4172/2157-7471.1000149
Copyright: © 2012 Gajera HP, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
In vitro potentialities of seven species of Trichoderma were evaluated against phytopathogen Macrophomina phaseolina by dual culture techniques. The maximum growth inhibition of test pathogen was observed by antagonist T. koningi MTCC 796 (T4) (74.3%) followed by T. harzianum NABII Th 1 (T1) (61.4%) at 7 days after inoculation (DAI). Further, mycoparasitism of antagonists were observed upto 14 DAI. Pattern of growth inhibition of test fungus was continued with maximum 14.7% increases in T4 (85.2%) followed by 6.8% elevation in T1 (65.6%) antagonists during 7 to 14 DAI. Microscopic study showed that these two antagonists were capable of overgrowing and degrading M. phaseolina mycelia, coiling around the hyphae with apressoria and hook-like structures. At 14 DAI, T. koningi MTCC 796 completely destroyed the host and sporulated. The specific activities of cell wall degrading enzymes- chitinase, β-1, 3 glucanase, protease and cellulase were tested during different incubation period (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) when Trichoderma spp. grew in presence of pathogen cell wall in synthetic media. The antagonist T. koningi MTCC 796 induced higher chitinase and protease activity at 24 h incubation while β-1, 3 glucanase activities was elevated 1.18 fold during 72 to 96 h. Total phenol was produced significantly higher in culture supernatant of T. koningi MTCC 796 antagonist followed by T. hamatum NBAII Tha 1 and T. harzianum NBAII Th 1 at 48 h incubation. The growth inhibitions of pathogen during antagonism was positively correlated with coiling pattern of antagonists at 14 DAI, and induction of chitinase, β-1, 3 glucanase and total phenol content.