Antibiotic Prescription Patterns in Ambulatory Dental Care in Kosovo
Background: Globally, the level of antibiotic prescription in dental care is increasing annually, and evidence indicates a high level of antibiotic misuse. This survey evaluated the prescription of antibiotics in primary dental care of health system of Kosova. Methods: Antibiotic use data for 1825 registered patients over a 1-year period were randomly collected and analyzed. These data are presented as the Defined Daily Dose [DDD]/1,000 inhabitants/day. Results: The prescription rate of antibiotics for all registered patients was 7.9%. The total use of antibiotics in dental primary care was 2.17 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day. A total of 6 individual antibiotics were identified in this survey. The most frequently used antibiotic was co-amoxiclav (J01CR02), with a 1.16 DDD, followed by amoxicillin (J01CA04), with a 0.78 DDD. Other individual antibiotics that were used significantly less frequently included ceftriaxone (J01DD04), with a 0.11 DDD, cefalexin (J01DB01), with a 0.09 DDD, procaine benzyl penicillin (J01CE09), with a 0.02 DDD, and gentamicin (J01GB03), with a 0.01 DDD. Conclusion: The results of this survey indicate that a high prescription rate is not rational in primary dental care in Kosovo. The prescription of antibiotics in Kosovo is exclusively empiric without prior sensitivity testing, which may negatively impact bacterial resistance profiles. The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics should be replaced with that of more narrow-spectrum antibiotics, and more restrictive prescription patterns should be applied. For qualitative improvement in the prescription of drugs in these groups, we recommend the implementation of a restrictive antibiotic policy.