Anti-Sm and Anti-U1-RNP Antibodies: An UpdateLemerle J and Renaudineau Y*
Laboratory of Immunology and Immunotherapy, CHU Morvan, Brest, France
- Corresponding Author:
- Yves Renaudineau
Laboratory of Immunology and Immunotherapy Brest University Medical School Hospital, BP824, F29609, Brest, France
Tel: +332 98 22 33 84
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: December 7, 2016; Accepted Date: December 10, 2016; Published Date: December 20, 2016
Citation: Lemerle J, Renaudineau Y (2016) Anti-Sm and Anti-U1-RNP Antibodies: An Update. Lupus Open Access 1:e104.
Copyright: © 2016 Lemerle J, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
From their discovery anti-Sm autoantibodies (Ab) have been associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), while anti-U1-RNP Ab detected alone are predominant in patients with mixed connective disease (MCTD). However, the identification of anti-Sm/U1-RNP Ab in a patient may be challenging, and usually requiring a two-step process including a screening step performed by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on HEp-2 cells showing a coarse speckled nuclear staining at an elevated level, followed by a confirmatory assay using specific antigens. The recent development of novel assays and the characterization of the target epitopes have been beneficial to improve the sensitivity for anti-Sm/U1-RNP Ab detection, but, in some cases, the necessity to use a different assay remains mandatory. Another recent and unexpected observation is related to the suspected role played by environmental and epigenetic factors in the induction of anti-Sm/U1-RNP Abs. Altogether, better knowledge regarding anti-Sm/U1- RNP Ab will undoubtedly provide improvements for the management and treatment of these patients.