Application of Massive Transfusion Protocol is Associated with a Low Incidence of Coagulopathy and Mortality RateAlhossain Khalafallah1,2*, Abdul-Majeed Albarzan2, Amit Ganguly1, Gerald Bates1,2, Fiona Gavin1, Kiran DK Ahuja2, David Seaton1 and Terry Brain1
- *Corresponding Author:
- A. Khalafallah
The Launceston General Hospital
Tel: +61-3- 63487111
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: March 19, 2012; Accepted date: May 07, 2012; Published date: May 13, 2012
Citation: Khalafallah A, Albarzan AM, Ganguly A, Bates G, Gavin F, et al. (2012) Application of Massive Transfusion Protocol is Associated with Low Incidence of Coagulopathy and Mortality Rate. J Blood Disord Transfus 3:123. doi: 10.4172/2155-9864.1000123
Copyright: © 2012 Khalafallah A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Background: Massive haemorrhage and subsequent Massive Transfusion (MT) are associated with serious, often fatal complications including intractable Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). Historically undesirable outcomes demonstrate the need to improve the management approach of MT. It is clear that evidence-based guidelines and protocols should be developed with the aim of improving MT-outcome.
Methods: We implemented an evidence-based MT-Protocol (MTP) in 2007 and studied all patients (105) from Jan 2008 to Jan 2011 who required MT and were treated with the MTP at our institution. The MTP includes two phases and incorporates a fixed volume of Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP), cryoprecipitate and platelets in addition to Packed Red Blood Cells (PRBC).
Results: The median age of patients was 57 years (range, 18-86). The male to female ratio was 74:31. Median Hb was 90 g/L (range, 44-110) and platelet count was 190/nl (range, 34-817). Thirteen patients developed mild DIC; 22 moderate DIC and one severe DIC. D-dimer showed average increase of 7.9 mg/L with a range between 0.6-35 mg/L (Normal <0.5). Average INR was 1.97, (range, 1.2-7.2), while average APTT was 36 seconds (range, 22-88s). The mortality rate was 11.4% (12/105) and these were mainly related to underlying trauma rather than DIC with the exception of 1 patient. The average number of transfused PRBC was 15 units (range, 6-42); cryoprecipitate, 20(range, 10-60); platelets, 2(range, 1-7) and FFP, 8(range, 2-20).
Conclusion: Despite serious bleeding secondary to trauma or surgery, the implementation of MTP seems to have reduced the occurrence of severe DIC and was associated with a relatively low mortality-rate. Further studies to confirm these findings are warranted.