alexa Aqueous Humor Outflow Structure and Function Imaging At the Bench and Bedside: A Review
ISSN: 2155-9570

Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Open Access

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Review Article

Aqueous Humor Outflow Structure and Function Imaging At the Bench and Bedside: A Review

Alex S. Huang1,2*, Chirayu Mohindroo1 and Robert N. Weinreb3

1Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA

2Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA

3Hamilton Glaucoma Center and Shiley Eye Institute, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA

*Corresponding Author:
Alex Huang, MD/PhD
Doheny Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology
David Geffen School of Medicine
University of California, Los Angeles
1355 San Pablo Street, Los Angeles
CA 90033, USA
Tel: 323-442-6436
Fax: 323-442-6688
Email: [email protected]

Received date: April 28, 2016; Accepted date: July 21, 2016; Published date: July 24, 2016

Citation: Huang A, Mohindroo C, Weinreb RN (2016) Aqueous Humor Outflow Structure and Function Imaging At the Bench and Bedside: A Review. J Clin Exp Ophthalmol 7:578. doi: 10.4172/2155-9570.1000578

Copyright: © 2016 Huang AS, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Anterior segment glaucoma clinical care and research has recently gained new focus because of novel imaging modalities and the advent of angle-based surgical treatments. Traditional investigation drawn to the trabecular meshwork now emphasizes the entire conventional aqueous humor outflow (AHO) pathway from the anterior chamber to the episcleral vein. AHO investigation can be divided into structural and functional assessments using different methods. The historical basis for studying the anterior segment of the eye and AHO in glaucoma is discussed. Structural studies of AHO are reviewed and include traditional pathological approaches to modern tools such as multi-model two-photon microscopy and optical coherence tomography. Functional assessment focuses on visualizing AHO itself through a variety of non-real-time and real-time techniques such as aqueous angiography. Implications of distal outflow resistance and segmental AHO are discussed with an emphasis on melding bench-side research to viable clinical applications. Through the development of an improved structure: function relationship for AHO in the anterior segment of the normal and diseased eye, a better understanding of the eye with improved therapeutics may be developed.


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