Are Features of the Metabolic Syndrome Associated with Macular Thickness in Individuals without Diabetes Mellitus?
|KM Gooding1*, AC Shore1, H von Lany2, R Ling2, M Mitra2, CI Ball1, D Mawson1 and JE Tooke1|
|1Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science, Peninsula Medical School, University of Exeter and Peninsula, National Institute of Health Research Clinical Research Facility, Barrack Road, Exeter, EX2 5AX, United Kingdom|
|2West of England Eye Unit, Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Foundation Trust, Barrack Road, Exeter, EX2 5DW, United Kingdom|
|Corresponding Author :||Dr. Kim Gooding
Diabetes and Vascular Medicine
Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science
Peninsula Medical School, University of Exeter
Barrack Road, Exeter, EX2 5AX, United Kingdom
Tel: (01392) 403081
Fax: (01392) 403027
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received July 17, 2012; Accepted August 17, 2012; Published August 24, 2012|
|Citation: Gooding KM, Shore AC, von Lany H, Ling R, Mitra M, et al. (2012) Are Features of the Metabolic Syndrome Associated with Macular Thickness in Individuals without Diabetes Mellitus? J Clin Exp Ophthalmol 3:242. doi:10.4172/2155-9570.1000242|
|Copyright: © 2012 Gooding KM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
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Background: Maculopathy is a common feature at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. However, it is not known whether
macular thickening, a potential preclinical sign of macular oedema, occurs in individuals with risk factors for diabetes.
Purposes: To examine whether macular thickness is increased in individuals with features of the metabolic
syndrome, namely waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting levels of triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and
glucose in non-diabetic individuals.
Methods: 50 non-diabetic Caucasian individuals were recruited (25 males, age range: 26-78 years, BMI range:
20-46 kg/m2). Macular thickness, divided into fovea and the inner and outer temporal, nasal, superior and inferior
quadrants, was assessed by Optical Coherence Tomography. Additional assessments included: arterial blood pressure,
fasting glucose and lipid profile (including triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol), BMI and waist circumference. Features
of the metabolic syndrome were collectively entered into a forced regression model to examine their relationship with
thickness in the macular subdivisions.
Results: Fovea thickness was within the normal range for all participants. Features of the metabolic syndrome were
not collectively associated with macular thickness. However, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was independently
associated with macular thickness in all regions (standardized beta>0.381, p<0.05) except for the outer nasal quadrant
(standardized beta=0.346, p=0.071) and avascular fovea region (standardized beta=0.105, p=0.591).
Conclusions: MAP, independent of other features of the metabolic syndrome, is associated with thickness in the
inner and outer quadrants of the macular. Further research is needed to fully elucidate this relationship. However,
potential explanations include altered pressure autoregulation (pressure or metabolic induced) and microvascular