alexa Assessing the Impact of Parental Depressive Symptoms on Offspring Temperament and Development in Infancy
ISSN: 2167-1044

Journal of Depression and Anxiety
Open Access

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Research Article

Assessing the Impact of Parental Depressive Symptoms on Offspring Temperament and Development in Infancy

Nancy Huynh1,2,3, Jackie Finik2,3 Jenny Ly2,3 and Yoko Nomura2,3*
1 Macaulay Honors College, CUNY, New York, New York, USA
2 Department of Psychology, Queens College, CUNY, Flushing, New York, USA
3 Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, USA
*Corresponding Author : Yoko Nomura
Department of Psychology
Queens College/CUNY, 65-30 Kissena Blvd. Flushing
New York 11367
Tel: (718)997-3164
Fax: (718)997-3257
E-mail: [email protected]
Received February 26, 2014; Accepted April 28, 2014; Published May 01, 2014
Citation: Huynh N, Finik J, Jenny Ly, Nomura Y (2014) Assessing the Impact of Parental Depressive Symptoms on Offspring Temperament and Development in Infancy. J Depress Anxiety S1:005. doi:10.4172/2167-1044.S1-005
Copyright: © 2014 Huynh N, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 

Abstract

The study prospectively followed 135 women during their pregnancy and their offspring till 6 months of age, to examine the roles of maternal and paternal depression during pregnancy on offspring neurobehavioral development as measured by their early temperament. Maternal and paternal depression statuses were ascertained during the third trimester, and infant temperament was evaluated at 6 months, via mothers self-report. Multivariable general linear model was used to assess 1) the main effects of maternal and paternal depression on infant temperament and 2) the interaction effect between maternal and paternal depression on infant temperament. Results show that maternal depression, but not paternal depression, was directly associated with greater neurobehavioral impairment in offspring as evident by more difficult temperament, including lower Smiling and Laughter (p= .006), lower Soothability (p= .02), elevated Sadness (p= .04) and lower Vocal Reactivity (p= .001). Moreover, only in the presence of maternal depression, was paternal depression significantly associated with signs of offspring neurobehavioral impairment, including lower Smiling and Laughter (p= .01) lower High Pleasure Seeking (p= .03), lower Soothability (p= .05), lower Cuddliness (p= .05) and lower Vocal Reactivity (p< .0001). These findings suggest that maternal, but not paternal, depression was directly associated with infant neurobehavioral impairment. Significant interaction effect suggests that in the presence of maternal depression, paternal depression amplifies its negative valence on infant neurobehavioral development. Providing intervention services not only for depressed mothers but also their partners during pregnancy may prove to be an effective prevention strategy for suboptimal neurobehavioral development in offspring.

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