Assessment of Retrospective and Current Substance Use in Women Who Inject Drugs in Low-Income Urban Settings in Kenya
Received Date: Jan 22, 2019 / Accepted Date: Feb 20, 2019 / Published Date: Feb 28, 2019
Women who inject drugs (WWIDs) continue to experience challenges that accumulate their risk to HIV transmission and other co-morbidities. However, data that conceptually link diverse substance use dimensions in WWIDs are lacking particularly in developing countries. We assessed retrospective and current substance use among 306 WWIDs in low-income urban settings in Kenya using mixed methods. Descriptive analyses were performed on quantitative data while qualitative narratives revealed insights from quantitative findings. The mean age of the study participants was 17 (range 11, 30) years. Out of the 306 WWIDs 57% commenced with substance use by combining both licit and illicit drugs. Intimate sexual partners including spouses and casual sex partners introduced seventy-four percent of WWIDs to substance use. Majority of the WWIDs (39.9%) commenced with 2- way substance combination with bhang and cigarette having the highest usage. However, 4-way substance combinations containing heroin, cigarette, bhang, valium, Rohypnol had the highest frequency (12.8%) at the time of the survey. Varied routes of heroin administration were mentioned including injection, smoking and sniffing as separate routes and as 2-way or 3-way mode combinations of these. To inform policies targeting the health and rights of girls and women in low income settings, this study recommends urgent upstream policies targeting the girl adolescent life in form of a multifunctional package composed of identifying girls at risk, substance use interventions, sexual health education, improved educational attainment, and progressive social policies that target low social economic status in the adolescent phase. Harm reduction programs in Kenya should target people who use heroin through both injection and non-injection modes of administration.
Keywords: WWID`s; Substance use; Human immunodeficiency virus
Citation: Mwangi C, Karanja S, Gachohi J, Wanjihia V, Ng’ang’a Z (2019) Assessment of Retrospective and Current Substance Use in Women Who Inject Drugs in Low-Income Urban Settings in Kenya. J Alcohol Drug Depend 7: 324. Doi: 10.4172/2329-6488.1000324
Copyright: © 2019 Mwangi C, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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