alexa Assessments in Primary Parkinson Syndrome for comparison between Monodopaminergic and Multi-target Anti-parkinsonian Pharmacotherapies | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2168-9784

Journal of Medical Diagnostic Methods
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Review Article

Assessments in Primary Parkinson Syndrome for comparison between Monodopaminergic and Multi-target Anti-parkinsonian Pharmacotherapies

Felix-Martin Werner1,2 and Rafael Coveñas2

1Höhere Berufsfachschule für Altenpflege und Ergotherapie der Euro Akademie Pößneck, Pößneck, Germany

2Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla y León (INCYL), Laboratory of Neuroanatomy of the Peptidergic Systems (Lab. 14), University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain

*Corresponding Author:
Felix-Martin Werner
Höhere Berufsfachschule für Altenpflege und Ergotherapie der Euro Akademie Pößneck
Pößneck, Germany
Tel: +34923294400, (extn: 1856)
Fax: +34923294549
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: April 19, 2017; Accepted date: May 02, 2017; Published date: May 08, 2017

Citation: Felix-Martin W, Rafael C (2017) Assessments in Primary Parkinson Syndrome for comparison between Mono-dopaminergic and Multitarget Anti-parkinsonian Pharmacotherapies. J Med Diagn Meth 6:241. doi:10.4172/2168-9784.1000241

Copyright: © 2017 Felix-Martin W, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

In this review, the altered functions of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in the extrapyramidal system in primary Parkinson syndrome are pointed out. In this syndrome, an altered neurotransmitter balance in the nuclei of the extrapyramidal system with hypoactivity of the dopaminergic and GABAergic neurotransmitter systems and hypoactivity of the muscarinic cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems occurs. Serotonin counteracts dopamine deficiency in the putamen via 5-HT2A receptors. Neuropeptides have a modulating function and influence the mentioned neurotransmitter systems. Neurotensin antagonists, at NTS1 receptors, and antagonists, at the mu opioid receptor, could have a therapeutic function in the anti-Parkinsonian pharmacotherapy. A scheme including the possible neural combinations in the neuronal system and considering the mentioned alterations of the neuroactive substances is described.

A scientific problem to be investigated is, whether a multi-target pharmacological treatment, i.e. add-on drugs such as agonists of the ß2 nicotinic cholinergic receptor, A2A adenosine antagonists, 5 metabotropic glutamatergic receptor antagonists and/or NTS1 receptor antagonists could exert a neuroprotective effect on dopaminergic neurons and may be slow down the progression of the disease. In clinical studies with Parkinsonian patients, a main goal must be to compare a cohort of Parkinsonian patients receiving a mono-dopaminergic pharmacotherapy with patients receiving multi-target anti-Parkinsonian pharmacotherapy. The motor and cognitive functions could be assessed by assessment tools, and imaging examination techniques should be applied in order to assess the generally progressive course of the illness.

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