Association between Lateral Epicondylalgia and Upper Extremity Anthropometric Measurements: A Case Control Study
- *Corresponding Author:
- Dr. Valentin C. Dones
University of South Australia
GPO Box 2471, Adelaide SA 5001
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: February 17, 2014; Accepted Date: April 17, 2014; Published Date: April 22, 2014
Citation: Dones VC, Grimmer-Somers K, Milanese S and Atlas AP (2014) Association between Lateral Epicondylalgia and Upper Extremity Anthropometric Measurements: A Case Control Study. Int J Phys Med Rehabil S5:003. doi: 10.4172/2329-9096.S5-003
Copyright: © 2014 Dones VC, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Objectives: Directional asymmetry is a measure of departure from bilateral symmetry. In the upper extremities, directional asymmetry can be determined by comparing the anthropometric measurements of arm length, elbow circumference and elbow breadth of individuals with and without Lateral epicondylalgia. This study aimed to detect the presence of significant directional asymmetry in the upper extremities of individuals with Lateral epicondylalgia. Methods: Potential case and control participants were recruited from January 2011 to September 2011 in Manila, Philippines. To qualify as a case with Lateral epicondylalgia in the study, participants must have lateral elbow pain on at least one elbow, which was replicated by at least one of the provocation tests (Cozen, Mill or Maudsley test). A single case was ideally matched with two control participants based on gender, age, and occupation. Bilateral arm length, elbow circumference (at the level of the elbow joint, at 5cm above and 5cm below the elbow joint) were measured by the senior physiotherapist. The odds ratio using the using a General Linear Model Univariate Analysis approach was applied to examine the relationship between the differences in the upper extremity anthropometric measurements, diagnosis of LE (case or control) and hand dominance (right or left). Results: 52 individuals with 48 unilateral elbow pain and 4 bilateral elbow pain were eligible for the study. The cases were matched with 99 control participants with 198 non-symptomatic elbows. Hand dominance was found to be significantly associated with elbow circumferential measurements taken at the level of the lateral epicondyle, 5cm above the lateral epicondyle and 5cm below the lateral epicondyle (p<0.05). Presence or absence of Lateral epicondylalgia (case or control) was not significantly associated with any of the upper extremity anthropometric measurements (p>0.05) Conclusion: Arm length, elbow circumference, and elbow breadth were not associated with Lateral epicondylalgia in our sample.