Association of Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Coronary Heart Disease among Japanese Urban Workers and their Families
|Tsukasa Namekata1,2*, Kenji Suzuki3, Norio Ishizuka3, Mitsuko Nakata1 and Kohji Shirai4|
|1Pacific Rim Disease Prevention Center, PO Box 25444, Seattle, WA 98165-2344, USA|
|2Department of Health Services, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Box 357660, Seattle, WA 98195-7660, USA|
|3Japan Health Promotion Foundation, 1-24-4 Ebisu, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo, 150-0013, Japan|
|4Department of Internal Medicine, Sakura Hospital Medical Center, Toho University, 546-1 Shizu, Sakura-shi, Chiba Prefecture, 285-8741, Japan|
|Corresponding Author :||Tsukasa Namekata
Pacific Rim Disease Prevention Center
P.O.Box 25444, Seattle, WA 98165-2344, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received: December 01, 2011; Accepted: January 08, 2012; Published: January 12, 2012|
|Citation: Namekata T, Suzuki K, Ishizuka N, Nakata M, Shirai K (2012) Association of Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Coronary Heart Disease among Japanese Urban Workers and their Families. J Clinic Experiment Cardiol S1:003. doi:10.4172/2155-9880.S1-003|
|Copyright: © 2012 Namekata T, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
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Purpose: Recently the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) has been developed to represent the extent of arteriosclerosis in the artery from the aortic valve to the ankle. The aim of the study is to examine the association of CAVI scores with the established cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and coronary heart disease (CHD).
Methods: Subjects were 9,881 men and 12,033 women of company employees and their families between 20 and 70 years of age and over who participated in CVD screening in Japan. The screening included measurements of CAVI, electrocardiogram, blood pressure, lipids, serum glucose, hemoglobin A1c, height, weight, and questions on smoking and drinking status. Persons having CHD were defined as those having history of CHD and/or having abnormal Q wave and/or ischemic change in ECG. After converting CAVI scores to binary variables (normal or abnormally high CAVI scores), logistic regression analysis was conducted.
Results: After adjusting for age, significant odds ratios (ORs) of abnormally high CAVI scores among men were found with diabetes mellitus (10.02, p<0.001), hypertension (8.37, p<0.001), triglycerides (2.76, p<0.001, for 150-199mg/dL and 2.85, p<0.001, for ≥200mg/dL, as reference:<150mg/dL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.19, p<0.001, for 40-59mg/dL and 0.20, p<0.001 for ≥60mg/dL, as reference: <40mg/dL), body mass index (2.04, p<0.001, for <20, 2.31, p<0.001, for 28-29.9 and 3.37, p<0.001, for ≥30 as reference:20-22.9), and ex-smokers (1.20, p<0.01, as reference: non-smokers). Almost identical results were found among women, except a significant OR with current smokers (2.25, p<0.001). The significant association between CHD and abnormally high CAVI scores was found: OR=3.87, p<0.001 for men and 1.45, p<0.01 for women after adjusting for CVD risk factors.
Conclusions: Our results confirmed that CAVI scores are a reliable indicator of arteriosclerosis reflecting the extent of arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis in the major artery between the aortic valve and the ankle.