Associations of Controlling Behavior, Physical and Sexual Violence with Health Symptoms
- *Corresponding Author:
- Dr. Tazeen Saeed Ali
School of Nursing and Midwifery and Community Health Sciences Aga Khan University
Room 2/110,Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi, Pakistan
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: June 30, 2014; Accepted date: October 26, 2014; Published date: October 31,2014
Citation: Ali TS, Abbas A, Ather F (2014) Associations of Controlling Behavior,Physical and Sexual Violence with Health Symptoms. J Women’s Health Care 3:202. doi: 10.4172/2167-0420.1000202
Copyright: © 2014 Ali TS, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Controlling behavior is often manifested as monitoring, coercing or threatening the partner. Globally, it has been experienced by the women (in range of 5.2% to 56.6%) and often results in their physical and mental ill health. To the best of our knowledge there is no published research on controlling behaviors. Therefore, a cross sectional study was conducted to measure the magnitude of the controlling behaviors and its association to some physical stress symptoms of women. The study was conducted in urban settings of Karachi, Pakistan, using simple random sampling technique. The data was collected by trained midwifes from the 759 married women of aged 25 to 60 years. The data was entered in Epi Info version 6 and analyzed on SPSS version 11. The study showed that the prevalence of pastyear physical and sexual violence is 68% while controlling behavior was experienced by 51.6% of the women. Among the different types of controlling behavior, refusal of the husband to give money for the household chores was the most common. The results of the bi-variate analysis showed that there was a significant association between women who had past-year physical or sexual violence experience with shoulder and neck pain, feeling worthlessness and suicidal thoughts. This study identified that most women in middle and lower socioeconomic groups are exposed to physical, sexual and psychological violence. Furthermore, we found that in addition to exposure to violence, women face controlling behaviors from their partner which restrict their decisions making toward their health.