Astrocyte Dysfunctions and HIV-1 Neurotoxicity
Hoai Ton and Huangui Xiong*
Neurophysiology Laborator, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5880, USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Huangui Xiong
Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience
University of Nebraska Medical Center
Omaha, NE 68198-5880, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: July 29, 2013; Accepted Date: November 12, 2013; Published Date: November 19, 2013
Citation: Ton H, Xiong H (2013) Astrocyte Dysfunctions and HIV-1 Neurotoxicity. J AIDS Clin Res 4:255. doi:10.4172/2155-6113.1000255
Copyright: © 2013 Ton H, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Astrocytes play an important role in maintaining an optically suited milieu for neuronal functionality, and are involved in the progression and outcome of many neuropathological conditions. It becomes increasingly evident that astrocytes are significant contributors to HIV-1 associated neurological disorders by modulating the microenvironment in the central nervous system and releasing proinflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have revealed direct metabolic interactions between neurons and astrocytes observed particularly in HIV-1-associated neurological disorders by which astrocytic dysfunctions disregulate extracellular K+ homeostasis, intracellular calcium concentration, glutamate clearance, and blood brain barrier integrity and permeability. Such dysfunctions are amplified via gap junctions, directly or indirectly impacting surrounding neurons and significantly contributing to the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated neuropathology. In this review, we tentatively address recent progresses on the roles astrocytes may play in HIV-1- associated neurotoxicity.