Atopic Dermatitis: Insights on Pathogenesis, Evaluation and Management
- *Corresponding Author:
- Antigoni Mavroudi
66 Spirou Loui St, PC: 54352 Pilea
Konstantinopolitika, Thessaloniki, Greece
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: August 27, 2014; Accepted date: October 06, 2014; Published date: October 13, 2014
Citation: Karagiannidou A, Botskariova S, Farmaki E, Imvrios G, Mavroudi A (2014) Atopic Dermatitis: Insights on Pathogenesis, Evaluation and Management. J Allergy Ther 5:195. doi: 10.4172/2155-6121.1000195
Copyright: © 2014 Karagiannidou A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Background: Atopic Dermatitis (AD) is a highly pruritic chronic inflammatory skin disease that commonly presents during early childhood. Several studies indicate that the disease is very common in western world with lifetime prevalence in children of 10% to 20%.
Data sources: We make recommendations regarding the evaluation and management of AD in children based on systematic literature searches using the best-available evidence from PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, NICE, the American Academy of Dermatology and the World Allergy Organization.
Results: AD has an immunologic basis. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are impaired in AD patients. Intense pruritus is a hallmark of the disease which leads to extensive scratching and further breakdown of the skin barrier. Treatment of AD may be topical or systemic. Topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors are used as topical anti-inflammatory agents. Patients should be carefully instructed in the use of topical glucocorticoids to avoid side effects.
Conclusions: Treatment of atopic eczema should be based on a “stepped-care plan” where treatments are stepped up or down depending on the assessment of the state of the child’s skin by the physician. Physicians who treat children with mild to moderate AD should tell children and their caregivers that AD is a lifelong illness.