alexa Autoantibodies against C1q as a Diagnostic Measure of Lupus Nephritis: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
ISSN: 2155-9899

Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
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Research Article

Autoantibodies against C1q as a Diagnostic Measure of Lupus Nephritis: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Paul Eggleton1*, Obioha C. Ukoumunne2, Isabel Cottrell1, Asma Khan1, Sidra Maqsood1, Jemma Thornes1, Elizabeth Perry1 and David Isenberg3
1Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK
2NIHR CLAHRC South West Peninsula (PenCLAHRC),University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK
3Centre for Rheumatology, Department of Medicine University College London, UK
Corresponding Author : Paul Eggleton, MPhil, PhD
University of Exeter Medical School
University of Exeter, Exeter EX1 2LU, UK
Tel: +44 (0)1392 722940
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: March 14, 2014; Accepted: April 15, 2014; Published: April 22, 2014
Citation: Eggleton P, Ukoumunne OC, Cottrell I, Khan A, Maqsood S, et al. (2014) Autoantibodies against C1q as a Diagnostic Measure of Lupus Nephritis: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. J Clin Cell Immunol 5:210. doi:10.4172/2155-9899.1000210
Copyright: © 2014 Eggleton P, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of C1q autoantibodies in identifying lupus nephritis (LN) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Data sources and methods: Citation indexes were searched and 370 articles published from 1977 to 2013 were evaluated. The 31 selected studies included in the meta-analysis were cross-sectional in design. Among the 31 studies, 28 compared anti-C1q antibodies in 2769 SLE patients including those with (n=1442) and without a history of LN (n=1327). Nine studies examined anti-C1q in 517 SLE patients with active (n=249) and inactive LN (n=268). Hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) random effects models were fitted to pool estimates of accuracy across the studies.

Results: Anti-C1q antibodies discriminated between patients with and without a history of LN, with a median specificity of 73.5%. The HSROC model estimated the corresponding sensitivity to be 70.4%. A hypothetical patient with a 55% prior probability of having a history of LN as opposed to no history (the median prevalence across 28 eligible studies) would have a post-test probability of 76.4% following a positive test result (positive predictive value) or 33.0% following a negative test result (negative predictive value). For differentiating active from inactive LN the median specificity of anti-C1q antibodies was 80%, with a corresponding estimated sensitivity value 75.7% based on the HSROC model. A hypothetical patient with a 56% prior probability of active as opposed to inactive LN (the median prevalence across the 9 eligible studies) would have a post-test probability of 82.8% following a positive test result or 27.9% following a negative test result.

Conclusions: Although C1q antibodies are associated with lupus nephritis the post-test probabilities are not sufficiently convincing to provide reasonable certainty of the presence or absence of history of disease/active disease.

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