alexa Bacterial Degradation of the Saturate Fraction of Arabian Light Crude oil: Biosurfactant Production and the Effect of ZnO Nanoparticles | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN:2157-7463

Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology
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Research Article

Bacterial Degradation of the Saturate Fraction of Arabian Light Crude oil: Biosurfactant Production and the Effect of ZnO Nanoparticles

Wael Ismail1*, Noora A Alhamad1, Wael S El-Sayed2,4, Ashraf M El Nayal1, Yin-Ru Chiang3, Riyad Y Hamzah1
1Biotechnology Program, College of Graduate Studies, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain
2Taibah University, Faculty of Science, Biology Department, Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah, 344, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
3Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan
4Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
Corresponding Author : Wael Ismail
Biotechnology Program
College of Graduate Studies
Arabian Gulf University
Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain
Tel: +97336146948
Fax: +97317239664
E-mail: [email protected]
Received November 05, 2013; Accepted December 20, 2013; Published December 28, 2013
Citation: Ismail W, Alhamad NA, El-Sayed WS, Nayal AMEl, Yin-Ru C, et al. (2013) Bacterial Degradation of the Saturate Fraction of Arabian Light Crude oil: Biosurfactant Production and the Effect of ZnO Nanoparticles. J Pet Environ Biotechnol 4:163. doi:10.4172/2157-7463.1000163
Copyright: © 2013 Ismail W, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

The aim of this research was to study the influence of nanoparticles and the initial oil amount on the biodegradation of crude oil. Production of biosurfactants was also assessed. Crude oil-utilizing bacteria were isolated from oilfields via enrichment in chemically defined medium with crude oil a sole carbon source. The isolates could be affiliated to the genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Achromobacter, and Microbacterium by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. GC/FID analysis revealed 52 to 98% degradation of the oil saturate fraction within one month. Nanoparticles of ZnO inhibited growth and crude oil biodegradation by one isolate. (NBHCO4). Two strains, NBHCO2 and NCEOW, emulsified and utilized water-in-oil emulsions (chocolate mousse). Two bacterial strains, I-19 and NBHCO2 grew with crude oil in cultures containing up to 20% oil. Degradation extent in the I-19 culture increased as the oil amount increased. On the contrary, the NBHCO2 culture exhibited a decrease in degradation extent as the oil amount increased. Biosurfactant production in only one crude oil culture (I-19) could be confirmed by the observed reduction in surface tension. Some isolates produced biosurfactants from water-soluble substrates such as glucose. The NBHCO2 strain produced a lipopeptide biosurfactant which reduced the surface tension of the growth medium from 72 to 27mN/m. A gene of catechol dioxygenase was detected in the I-19, NBHCO4, and NCEOW isolates. In conclusion, metal oxide nanoparticles can interfere with crude oil biodegradation. Biosurfactants are not necessarily a prerequisite for crude oil biodegradation. The initial oil amount is a significant determinant of oil biodegradability. The isolates can by applied for bioaugmentation of petroleum-polluted soil and biosurfactants production.

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