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Bacteriological Pollution of Artesian Ground Water Sources Used by Local Communities Living in and Around Bukavu Town (Democratic Republic of Congo) as Sources of Potable Drinking Water | Abstract
ISSN: 2157-7587

Hydrology: Current Research
Open Access

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Conference Proceeding

Bacteriological Pollution of Artesian Ground Water Sources Used by Local Communities Living in and Around Bukavu Town (Democratic Republic of Congo) as Sources of Potable Drinking Water

C.Kyambikwa BISANGAMO1, P. Mbarambara MULONGO2, J-P Byenda BALEGAMIRE3, L. Wimba KAYANGA4, T. Kashosi MITIMA1, C. Wakeka KABYUMA1, Mbaka KAVUVU4, Cirhuza MALEKEZI3, Bwinja MULINGANYA2, Lea BABONE1 and M.B.Théodore MUNYULI 4,5*
1Département de Techniques de Laboratoire, Institut Supérieur des Techniques Médicales de Bukavu, ISTM-Bukavu, RD Congo.
2Département de Sciences Infirmières, Institut Supérieur des Techniques Médicales de Bukavu, ISTM-Bukavu, RD Congo
3Département de Sciences Infirmières, Institut Supérieur des Techniques Médicales de Bukavu, ISTM-Bukavu, RD Congo
4Centre de recherche pour la promotion de la santé, Département de nutrition et diététiques, Institut Supérieur des Techniques Médicales, ISTM-Bukavu, RD Congo.
5Université du Cinquantenaire (UNIC/Lwiro) & Département de Biologie et Environnement, Centre National de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles (CRSN/Lwiro), D.S.Bukavu, Sud-Kivu, R D Congo
Corresponding Author : Théodore Munyuli MB
Centre de recherche pourla promotion de la santé
Département de nutrition et diététiques
Institut Supérieur des Techniques Médicales, ISTM-Bukavu
RD Congo & Department of Environment and Biology
National Center for research in natural sciences
CRSN-Lwiro, D.S. Bukavu, DR Congo
Tel: +243992143245, +256-772579267
E-mail: [email protected], [email protected]
Received October 16, 2012; Accepted November 14, 2012; Published November 16, 2012
Citation: Théodore Munyuli MB, Wimba Kayanga L, Kavuvu M, Wakeka Kabyuma C, Kyambikwa Bisangamo C, et al. (2012) Bacteriological Pollution of Artesian Ground Water Sources Used by Local Communities Living in and Around Bukavu Town (Democratic Republic of Congo) as Sources of Potable Drinking Water. Hydrol Current Res S12:001. doi: 10.4172/2157-7587.S12-001
Copyright: © 2012 Théodore Munyuli MB, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

Pollution of water for human consumption is a major environmental challenge in hundreds of towns across Sub-Sahara Africa. The objective of this work was to evaluate the degree of bacterial pollution of ground water sourcesas sources of safe drinking water consumed by local human communities living in urban and peri-urban zones of Bukavu town (eastern DR Congo). Populations living in these zones are generally disfavored in terms of safe watersupply services by the national water corporation (REGIDESO). This study was conducted in 2011 during the dry and rainy seasons from 15 ground water sources used by the population from these peri-urban zones as sources of safe drinking water and as source of safe water for other domestic needs. In total, 150 samples were taken from these water sources. During both rainy and dry seasons, 5 water samples were taken for every source. These samples were analyzed for their physic-chemical and bacteriological properties in comparison to world health organization standards. Results indicated that the degree of bacterial pollution of water was high (T=4.56, P<0.05) during rainy season (20.6 ± 25.3 total coliforms/100 ml of water on average) than during the dry season (3.10 ± 6.023 total
coliforms/100 ml of water on average) across all sources studied. Sources (sites) that were highly polluted included Mulehe I, Kaliba, Kahuranyi, Cemu, Bagira, Funu et Gihamba. Overall, bacterial pollution of drinking water sources was significantly (P<0.05) high during the rainy season than during the dry season. Similarly, cholera epidemic outbreak is high in these zones during the rainy season (September-December). In November-December 2011, more than 400 cases of death were registered in hospital and the victims were from these highly polluted areas where the study was conducted. In fact, the presence of Vibrio cholerae was detected in all rainy season water samples from these areas. The results of this study indicated that Vibrio cholerae is the principal dangerous pollutant agent of these drinking ground water sources used by more than half million people living in peri-urban areas and in over-populated areas in Bukavu town. There is a need to set a system of monitoring water quality for human consumption. Results (findings) of such a monitoring program may be used to inform policy makers and health agents on better strategies to control water pollution in Bukavu and in related Sub-Sahara African towns. There is a need for policy makers to develop new strategies to improve water sanitation and supply everyone safe drinking
groundwater in Bukavu Town. The adoption of water sanitation, rainwater harvesting technologies may help in areas where the national water corporation can’t be able to supply water in short to mid terms.

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