Bioeffects of electromagnetic base station on glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidation and total cholesterol in different tissues of Wistar rats
Assessment of potential health risk of electromagnetic field (EMF) includes numerous uncertainties. The radio waves emitted by a GSM base stations, can have a peak power of 2 watts, and there are relatively few known reports linking biological effects to enzymatic and macromolecules of basal biochemical activity. The aim of the present study is to determine the bioeffects of base station on glutathione reductase (GR), lipid peroxidation (LP) and total cholesterol levels in different tissues of rats exposed to base station radiation. Animals (20 male Wistar rats) were randomly located in the vicinity of base station <10m on ground zero. Exposure was in three forms: continuous waves, or modulated at 900MHz or modulated GSM-nonDTX. The radio frequency radiation (RFR) was 1800 MHz, specific absorption radiation (SAR) (0.95-2W/kg) for 40 and/or 60days continuously. Control animals were located > 300m from base station, while sham control animals were located in a similar environmental conditions, but in the vicinity of a non-functional base station. Results of bioeffects of base station on enzymatic activity and macromolecules showed insignificant effects on the rat kidney, liver and brain at 40days. However, at 60days, decreased activity of GR, decreased levels of lipid peroxidation as measured by malondialdehyde and total cholesterol were observed. The sham controls have relative values as the controls, same as far field exposure. The difference was not statistically significant except in the brain (P<0.05), when compared to sham and far field. The decrease in LP in the tissues could be attributed to increased oxidative stress leading to depletion of tissues contents with diminution of antioxidative defense system. These subtle bioeffects at 60 days could mean greater potential health risk at much longer period of exposure.